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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Mechanisms of suppression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression in RAW 264.7 cells by andrographolide.

Andrographolide, an active component found in leaves of Andrographis paniculata, has been reported to exhibit nitric oxide (NO) inhibitory property in endotoxin-stimulated macrophages, however, the detailed mechanisms remain unclear. In the present study we investigated the effect of andrographolide on the expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) mRNA, protein, and enzyme activity in RAW 264.7 macrophages stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) plus interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma). RAW 264.7 cells stimulated with LPS/IFN-gamma activated NO production; in this condition andrographolide (1-100 microM) inhibited NO production in a dose-dependent manner with an IC(50) value of 17.4+/-1.1 microM. Andrographolide also reduces the expression of iNOS protein level but without a significant effect on iNOS mRNA. The reduction of iNOS activity is thought to be caused by decreased expression of iNOS protein. In a protein stability assay, andrographolide moderately but significantly reduced the amount of iNOS protein as suggested by accelerating degradation. Furthermore, andrographolide also inhibited total protein de novo synthesis as demonstrated by [(35)S]-methionine incorporation. As a whole, these data suggest that andrographolide inhibits NO synthesis in RAW 264.7 cells by reducing the expression of iNOS protein and the reduction could occur through two additional mechanisms: prevention of the de novo protein synthesis and decreasing the protein stability via a post-transcriptional mechanism. It is also possible that inhibition of iNOS protein expression and NO production under immune stimulation and/or bacteria infection may explain, in part, the beneficial effects of andrographolide as an anti-inflammatory agent.[1]


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