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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Toxicity and residual effectiveness of insecticides on insecticide-treated spheres for controlling females of Rhagoletis pomonella (Diptera: Tephritidae).

This study evaluated the toxicity of five technical-grade insecticides of four different classes to apple maggot females, Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh), following a 10-min exposure period in insecticide-coated glass jars, with or without a feeding stimulant (sucrose) present. According to LC90 values for toxicity by ingestion and tarsal contact, imidacloprid was 1.5 times more toxic than dimethoate or abamectin, diazinon was less toxic, and phloxine B (a phototoxic dye) least toxic. Based on LC90 values for tarsal contact alone, dimethoate was 2.3, 4.0, and 18.4 times more toxic than imidacloprid, abamectin, and diazinon, respectively. Contact alone with phloxine B caused no mortality. When exposure was assessed using spheres coated with a latex paint mixture containing sucrose and formulated dimethoate (Digon 400 EC) or imidacloprid (Provado 1.6 F) at concentrations ranging from 5 to 70 g (AI)/cm2, both insecticides showed reduced effectiveness compared with toxicities from glass jar tests, with Digon two times more toxic than Provado. After exposure to artificial rainfall and retreatment with sucrose, Digon- and Provado-treated spheres exhibited greatest residual effectiveness, with diazinon-treated spheres less effective. Spheres treated with formulated abamectin (Agri-Mek 0.15 EC) at 1.0% (AI) performed only slightly better than phloxine B-treated spheres, which completely lost effectiveness after exposure to rainfall. Spheres treated with formulated imidacloprid (Merit 75 WP) at 1.5% (AI) showed equal or better residual efficacy in killing apple maggot flies (> 80% mortality, shorter lethal duration of feeding) over a 12-wk exposure period to outdoor weather than spheres treated with Digon at 1.0% (AI) after both types were retreated with sucrose. Our results indicate that imidacloprid is a promising safe substitute for dimethoate as a fly killing agent on lure-kill spheres. Imidacloprid formulated as Merit 75 WP had greater residual efficacy than imidacloprid formulated as Provado 1.6 F.[1]


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