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Chemical Compound Review

Bazudine     diethoxy-(6-methyl-2-propan- 2-yl-pyrimidin...

Synonyms: Ciazinon, Dassitox, Delzinon, Diazajet, Diazitol, ...
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Disease relevance of diazinon

  • A completed termination event at tR2 requires both the nusA gene protein and the previously described E. coli termination factor rho [1].
  • In mice whose oxidative metabolism had been increased with beta-ionone or in which esterase metabolism had been inhibited by diazinon, the severity of the toxicity was increased but the intraacinar origin of the lesion did not change [2].
  • To determine the location of DNA sequences required for the utilization of rho factor in transcription termination at the tR1 terminator of phage lambda, we constructed and analyzed a series of deletion mutants affecting several distinct regions of the cro-gene sequence [3].
  • Three groups of eight dogs each were studied to evaluate the early evolution of the hyperamylasemia, hyperlipasemia, and acinar cell pathology at the light and electron microscopic levels during acute Diazinon-induced pancreatitis [4].
  • Treatment with diazinon (40 mg/kg, i.p.) resulted in hyperglycemia and depletion of glycogen from cerebral and peripheral tissues 2 hr after its administration in rats [5].

Psychiatry related information on diazinon

  • These findings suggest that diazinon may interfere with airway defense mechanisms by reducing the activity of RARs [6].
  • Core temperature (Tc) and motor activity (MA) were monitored by radiotelemetry in male and female rats of the Long-Evans strain dosed orally with diazinon (0 [corn-oil vehicle], 100, 200, or 300 mg/kg in males and 0, 50, 100, or 200 mg/kg in females) [7].
  • 109 college man and 76 college women ranging in age from 17 to 50 years and having an average age of 21 yr. completed Coopersmith's Self-esteem Scale and Elison's Compass of Shame Scale which measures four shame-focused coping styles [8].
  • Development and evaluation of a youth mental health community awareness campaign - The Compass Strategy [9].

High impact information on diazinon

  • The high density lipoprotein (HDL)-associated enzyme paraoxonase (PON1) contributes significantly to the detoxication of several OPs (Fig. 1). The insecticides parathion, chlorpyrifos and diazinon are bioactivated to potent cholinesterase inhibitors by cytochrome P-450 systems [10].
  • Understanding the molecular mechanism of specific and polarized termination of DNA replication at a sequence-specific replication terminus requires detailed analyses of the interaction of terminator protein (ter) with specific DNA sequences (tau), constituting the replication terminus [11].
  • Furthermore, PCR analysis of pinned specimens of Australasian L. cuprina collected before the release of organophosphate insecticides reveals no cases of the diazinon-resistance change but several cases of those associated with malathion resistance [12].
  • The pinned specimen analysis also shows much higher genetic diversity at the locus before organophosphate use, suggesting that the subsequent sweep of diazinon resistance in Australasia has compromised the scope for the locus to respond further to the ongoing challenge of the insecticides [12].
  • Purified Tus protein alone is necessary and sufficient to arrest DNA replication on ColE1-type plasmid templates containing ter sites [13].

Chemical compound and disease context of diazinon


Biological context of diazinon

  • Tus protein-catalyzed termination depends upon the orientation of the ter site in the plasmid DNA [13].
  • Three new potential Ter sites, referred to as TerH, TerI, and TerJ, were identified by searching the E. coli genome for sequence similarity to a consensus Ter site sequence [19].
  • In this study, mutant Ter sites carrying single base pair substitutions at 16 different positions were examined for their ability to bind purified Tus protein and arrest DNA replication [19].
  • Twenty-nine early promoters from bacteriophage T4 and 14 early promoters from bacteriophage T6 were isolated using vector M13HDL17, a promoterless derivative of M13mp8 carrying a linker sequence, the bacteriophage lambda-terminator tR1, and the lacZ' gene including part of its ribosome-binding site [20].
  • Modified and susceptible phenotypes showed increased asymmetry score for temperatures and larval densities above and below standard rearing conditions; a positive correlation was observed between diazinon concentration and asymmetry score [21].

Anatomical context of diazinon


Associations of diazinon with other chemical compounds


Gene context of diazinon

  • DNA sequences of all the RET/GDNF/NTN coding regions were determined using a direct DyeDeoxy Terminator Cycle method [28].
  • Diazinon is activated by CYP2C19 in human liver [29].
  • These data indicate that CYP2C19 is the major enzyme involved in diazinon activation in human liver, while other enzymes including CYP1A2 may play a more minor role [29].
  • Time- and money-saving one-directional Big Dye Terminator cycle sequencing is shown to provide reliable high resolution typing of the HLA-A alleles, even in a few cases of two amplicons in one primer reaction mixture [30].
  • This research describes both the activation and detoxification of diazinon, chlorpyrifos and parathion by recombinant P450 isozymes and by human liver microsomes that had been characterised for P450 marker activities [31].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of diazinon


  1. Termination of transcription by nusA gene protein of Escherichia coli. Greenblatt, J., McLimont, M., Hanly, S. Nature (1981) [Pubmed]
  2. Cocaine hepatotoxicity: influence of hepatic enzyme inducing and inhibiting agents on the site of necrosis. Roth, L., Harbison, R.D., James, R.C., Tobin, T., Roberts, S.M. Hepatology (1992) [Pubmed]
  3. Sequence elements essential for rho-dependent transcription termination at lambda tR1. Chen, C.Y., Richardson, J.P. J. Biol. Chem. (1987) [Pubmed]
  4. The effect of atropine and duct decompression on the evolution of Diazinon-induced acute canine pancreatitis. Dressel, T.D., Goodale, R.L., Zweber, B., Borner, J.W. Ann. Surg. (1982) [Pubmed]
  5. Modification of diazinon-induced changes in carbohydrate metabolism by adrenalectomy in rats. Matin, M.A., Husain, K., Khan, S.N. Biochem. Pharmacol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  6. Effect of Diazinon PLUS on rapidly adapting receptors in the rabbit. Campbell, H., Ravi, K., Bravo, E., Kappagoda, C.T. J. Appl. Physiol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  7. Influence of gender on thermoregulation and cholinesterase inhibition in the long-evans rat exposed to diazinon. Gordon, C.J., Mack, C.M. J. Toxicol. Environ. Health Part A (2003) [Pubmed]
  8. Shame-focused coping styles and their associations with self-esteem. Yelsma, P., Brown, N.M., Elison, J. Psychological reports. (2002) [Pubmed]
  9. Development and evaluation of a youth mental health community awareness campaign - The Compass Strategy. Wright, A., McGorry, P.D., Harris, M.G., Jorm, A.F., Pennell, K. BMC public health [electronic resource]. (2006) [Pubmed]
  10. The effect of the human serum paraoxonase polymorphism is reversed with diazoxon, soman and sarin. Davies, H.G., Richter, R.J., Keifer, M., Broomfield, C.A., Sowalla, J., Furlong, C.E. Nat. Genet. (1996) [Pubmed]
  11. DNA-protein interaction at the replication termini of plasmid R6K. Sista, P.R., Hutchinson, C.A., Bastia, D. Genes Dev. (1991) [Pubmed]
  12. Amplification of DNA from preserved specimens shows blowflies were preadapted for the rapid evolution of insecticide resistance. Hartley, C.J., Newcomb, R.D., Russell, R.J., Yong, C.G., Stevens, J.R., Yeates, D.K., La Salle, J., Oakeshott, J.G. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2006) [Pubmed]
  13. Escherichia coli Tus protein acts to arrest the progression of DNA replication forks in vitro. Hill, T.M., Marians, K.J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1990) [Pubmed]
  14. Microbial cleavage of various organophosphorus insecticides. Rosenberg, A., Alexander, M. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (1979) [Pubmed]
  15. In vitro rat hepatic and intestinal metabolism of the organophosphate pesticides chlorpyrifos and diazinon. Poet, T.S., Wu, H., Kousba, A.A., Timchalk, C. Toxicol. Sci. (2003) [Pubmed]
  16. Tropical ecotoxicity testing with Ceriodaphnia cornuta. Do Hong, L.C., Becker-Van Slooten, K., Tarradellas, J. Environ. Toxicol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  17. Increased toxicity to Ceriodaphnia dubia in mixtures of atrazine and diazinon at environmentally realistic concentrations. Banks, K.E., Turner, P.K., Wood, S.H., Matthews, C. Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf. (2005) [Pubmed]
  18. Effect of pesticide mixtures on in vitro nervous cells: comparison with single pesticides. Marinovich, M., Ghilardi, F., Galli, C.L. Toxicology (1996) [Pubmed]
  19. Sequence-specific interactions in the Tus-Ter complex and the effect of base pair substitutions on arrest of DNA replication in Escherichia coli. Coskun-Ari, F.F., Hill, T.M. J. Biol. Chem. (1997) [Pubmed]
  20. Bacteriophage T4 early promoter regions. Consensus sequences of promoters and ribosome-binding sites. Liebig, H.D., Rüger, W. J. Mol. Biol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  21. Environmental and genetic effects on the asymmetry phenotype: Diazinon resistance in the Australian sheep blowfly, Lucilia cuprina. Freebairn, K., Yen, J.L., McKenzie, J.A. Genetics (1996) [Pubmed]
  22. Novel diazinone derivatives separate myofilament Ca2+ sensitization and phosphodiesterase III inhibitory effects in guinea pig myocardium. Ventura, C., Miller, R., Wolf, H.P., Beier, N., Jonas, R., Klockow, M., Lues, I., Hano, O., Spurgeon, H.A., Lakatta, E.G. Circ. Res. (1992) [Pubmed]
  23. Metabolism and cytotoxicity of propyl gallate in isolated rat hepatocytes: effects of a thiol reductant and an esterase inhibitor. Nakagawa, Y., Nakajima, K., Tayama, S., Moldéus, P. Mol. Pharmacol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  24. Light-activated destruction of cancer cell nuclei by platinum diazide complexes. Bednarski, P.J., Grünert, R., Zielzki, M., Wellner, A., Mackay, F.S., Sadler, P.J. Chem. Biol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  25. Alternations in splenocyte and thymocyte subpopulations in B6C3F1 mice exposed to cocaine plus diazinon. Kump, D.F., Matulka, R.A., Burton, G.F., Jordan, S.D., Holsapple, M.P. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. (1996) [Pubmed]
  26. Pesticides and risk of Parkinson disease: a population-based case-control study. Firestone, J.A., Smith-Weller, T., Franklin, G., Swanson, P., Longstreth, W.T., Checkoway, H. Arch. Neurol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  27. Identification of photocatalytic degradation products of diazinon in TiO2 aqueous suspensions using GC/MS/MS and LC/MS with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Kouloumbos, V.N., Tsipi, D.F., Hiskia, A.E., Nikolic, D., van Breemen, R.B. J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom. (2003) [Pubmed]
  28. A homozygous missense mutation in the tyrosine E kinase domain of the RET proto-oncogene in an infant with total intestinal aganglionosis. Shimotake, T., Go, S., Inoue, K., Tomiyama, H., Iwai, N. Am. J. Gastroenterol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  29. Diazinon is activated by CYP2C19 in human liver. Kappers, W.A., Edwards, R.J., Murray, S., Boobis, A.R. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  30. New high resolution typing strategy for HLA-A locus alleles based on dye terminator sequencing of haplotypic group-specific PCR-amplicons of exon 2 and exon 3. Kurz, B., Steiert, I., Heuchert, G., Müller, C.A. Tissue Antigens (1999) [Pubmed]
  31. Diazinon, chlorpyrifos and parathion are metabolised by multiple cytochromes P450 in human liver. Mutch, E., Williams, F.M. Toxicology (2006) [Pubmed]
  32. Relationship between low quality-of-care scores and HMOs' subsequent public disclosure of quality-of-care scores. McCormick, D., Himmelstein, D.U., Woolhandler, S., Wolfe, S.M., Bor, D.H. JAMA (2002) [Pubmed]
  33. Separation of impurities in diazinon preparations and their effect on porphyrin biosynthesis in tissue culture. Nichol, A.W., Elsbury, S., Elder, G.H., Jackson, A.H., Rao, K.R. Biochem. Pharmacol. (1982) [Pubmed]
  34. Analysis of the diazinon metabolites G 27550 and GS 31144 by gas-liquid chromatography with nitrogen-specific detection after derivatization. Lawrence, J.F., Iverson, F. J. Chromatogr. (1975) [Pubmed]
  35. Assessment of novel diazinon immunoassays for water analysis. Brun, E.M., Garcés-García, M., Escuín, E., Morais, S., Puchades, R., Maquieira, A. Environ. Sci. Technol. (2004) [Pubmed]
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