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Chemical Compound Review

dimethoate     2- dimethoxyphosphinothioylsulfan yl-N...

Synonyms: Dimetate, Fosfamid, Fosfotox, Rebelate, Sistemin, ...
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Disease relevance of dimethoate

  • Characterization of prosystemin expressed in the baculovirus/insect cell system reveals biological activity of the systemin precursor [1].
  • To assess whether the juvenile life stages are the most susceptible, we examined the acute toxicity of dimethoate on larvae, protonymphs, deutonymphs, males, and females of H. aculeifer [2].
  • Elevated transaminases are more frequently seen than ascites and elevated alkaline phosphamide are seen in patients with RILD [3].
  • In the dose range of 28.2, 14.1, and 7.04, and 7.04 mg/kg/day DM, the two higher doses decreased the body weight gain [4].
  • Uptake of dieldrin, dimethoate and permethrin by cyanobacteria, Anabaena sp. and Aulosira fertilissima [5].

Psychiatry related information on dimethoate

  • Exposure to dimethoate significantly decreased locomotor activity in the first 6 h after administration resulting in a significant decrease in the area over which animals moved [6].
  • Carabid beetles (Pterostichus oblongopunctatus F.) were subjected to food deprivation and insecticide treatment (dimethoate) to resolve trends associated with a gradient of heavy metal pollution [7].

High impact information on dimethoate


Chemical compound and disease context of dimethoate


Biological context of dimethoate


Anatomical context of dimethoate


Associations of dimethoate with other chemical compounds

  • In experiments designed to define the normal function of DEF1, we found that def1 plants are defective in defense gene signaling initiated by prosystemin overexpression in transgenic plants as well as by oligosaccharide (chitosan and polygalacturonide) and polypeptide (systemin) elicitors [25].
  • Hydrogen peroxide is generated systemically in plant leaves by wounding and systemin via the octadecanoid pathway [26].
  • Here, we outline recent progress and future challenges in the signaling peptide analysis, which began with systemin, phytosulfokine, CLAVATA3 and S-locus cysteine-rich protein (also called S-locus protein 11) [27].
  • Using a radioreceptor assay, we show that suramin interfered with the binding of the systemin analog (125)I-Tyr-2, Ala-15-systemin to the systemin receptor with an IC(50) of 160 microM [28].
  • Methamidophos pretreatment in rats also markedly alters the metabolism of dimethoate (another systemic insecticide) from principally carboxyamide hydrolysis to mainly other pathways [29].

Gene context of dimethoate

  • Dimethoate inhibits steroidogenesis by disrupting transcription of the steroidogenic acute regulatory (StAR) gene [30].
  • This study concludes that oxidative stress due to dimethoate may be ascribed to induction of Cytochrome P450, inhibition of AChE and disturbance in activities of GSH and GST enzymes causing lipid peroxidation and histological and electron microscopic changes in liver and brain [31].
  • Glutathione reductase (GR) activity in individuals treated with dimethoate did not decrease only in insects from the most contaminated site I [32].
  • Tomato plants transformed with an antisense prosystemin gene produce neither PG activity or H2O2 in leaves in response to wounding, implicating systemin as a primary wound signal [26].
  • Despite the fact that structural features of LRR-RKs are fairy similar, five available ligand molecules for LRR-RKs are structurally diverse, from steroids (brassinolides) to peptides (phytosulfokine and systemin) and secreted proteins (CLV3) [33].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of dimethoate


  1. Characterization of prosystemin expressed in the baculovirus/insect cell system reveals biological activity of the systemin precursor. Vetsch, M., Janzik, I., Schaller, A. Planta (2000) [Pubmed]
  2. Life stage specific impact of dimethoate on the predatory mite Hypoaspis aculeifer canestrini (Gamasida: Laelapidae). Heckmann, L.H., Maraldo, K., Krogh, P.H. Environ. Sci. Technol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  3. Radiation-induced liver disease after radiotherapy for hepatocellular carcinoma: clinical manifestation and dosimetric description. Cheng, J.C., Wu, J.K., Huang, C.M., Huang, D.Y., Cheng, S.H., Lin, Y.M., Jian, J.J., Yang, P.S., Chuang, V.P., Huang, A.T. Radiotherapy and oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology. (2002) [Pubmed]
  4. Simultaneous geno- and immunotoxicological investigations for early detection of organophosphate toxicity in rats. Undeger, U., Institóris, L., Siroki, O., Nehéz, M., Dési, I. Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf. (2000) [Pubmed]
  5. Uptake of dieldrin, dimethoate and permethrin by cyanobacteria, Anabaena sp. and Aulosira fertilissima. Kumar, S., Lal, R., Bhatnagar, P. Environ. Pollut. (1988) [Pubmed]
  6. Behavioral effects of acute sublethal exposure to dimethoate on wood mice, Apodemus sylvaticus: II--Field studies on radio-tagged mice in a cereal ecosystem. Dell'Omo, G., Shore, R.F. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  7. Time to death response in carabid beetles exposed to multiple stressors along a gradient of heavy metal pollution. Stone, D., Jepson, P., Kramarz, P., Laskowski, R. Environ. Pollut. (2001) [Pubmed]
  8. Regulation of left-right patterning in mice by growth/differentiation factor-1. Rankin, C.T., Bunton, T., Lawler, A.M., Lee, S.J. Nat. Genet. (2000) [Pubmed]
  9. Structure, expression, and antisense inhibition of the systemin precursor gene. McGurl, B., Pearce, G., Orozco-Cardenas, M., Ryan, C.A. Science (1992) [Pubmed]
  10. Cloning the tomato curl3 gene highlights the putative dual role of the leucine-rich repeat receptor kinase tBRI1/SR160 in plant steroid hormone and peptide hormone signaling. Montoya, T., Nomura, T., Farrar, K., Kaneta, T., Yokota, T., Bishop, G.J. Plant Cell (2002) [Pubmed]
  11. A comparison of the effect of new and established insecticides on nontarget invertebrates of winter wheat fields. Moreby, S.J., Southway, S., Barker, A., Holland, J.M. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  12. Comparative susceptibility and possible detoxification mechanisms for selected miticides in banks grass mite and two-spotted spider mite (Acari: Tetranychidae). Yang, X., Zhu, K.Y., Buschman, L.L., Margolies, D.C. Exp. Appl. Acarol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  13. Effects of pesticides on soil invertebrates in model ecosystem and field studies: a review and comparison with laboratory toxicity data. Jänsch, S., Frampton, G.K., Römbke, J., Van den Brink, P.J., Scott-Fordsmand, J.J. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  14. Effect of organophosphorus (dimethoate) and pyrethroid (deltamethrin) pesticides on semen characteristics in rabbits. Salem, M.H., Abo-Elezz, Z., Abd-Allah, G.A., Hassan, G.A., Shaker, N. Journal of environmental science and health. Part. B, Pesticides, food contaminants, and agricultural wastes. (1988) [Pubmed]
  15. Toxicity of organophosphorus esters to laying hens after oral and dermal administration. Francis, B.M., Metcalf, R.L., Hansen, L.G. Journal of environmental science and health. Part. B, Pesticides, food contaminants, and agricultural wastes. (1985) [Pubmed]
  16. Hydrogen peroxide acts as a second messenger for the induction of defense genes in tomato plants in response to wounding, systemin, and methyl jasmonate. Orozco-Cárdenas, M.L., Narváez-Vásquez, J., Ryan, C.A. Plant Cell (2001) [Pubmed]
  17. The plant wound hormone systemin binds with the N-terminal part to its receptor but needs the C-terminal part to activate it. Meindl, T., Boller, T., Felix, G. Plant Cell (1998) [Pubmed]
  18. Modulation of plasma membrane H+-ATPase activity differentially activates wound and pathogen defense responses in tomato plants. Schaller, A., Oecking, C. Plant Cell (1999) [Pubmed]
  19. Signals involved in wound-induced proteinase inhibitor II gene expression in tomato and potato plants. Peña-Cortés, H., Fisahn, J., Willmitzer, L. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1995) [Pubmed]
  20. Identification of a 50-kDa systemin-binding protein in tomato plasma membranes having Kex2p-like properties. Schaller, A., Ryan, C.A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1994) [Pubmed]
  21. The systemin receptor SR160 from Lycopersicon peruvianum is a member of the LRR receptor kinase family. Scheer, J.M., Ryan, C.A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2002) [Pubmed]
  22. The plant cell wall matrix harbors a precursor of defense signaling peptides. Narváez-Vásquez, J., Pearce, G., Ryan, C.A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2005) [Pubmed]
  23. Studies of the capillary basal lamina. I. Ultrastructure of the red body of the eel swimbladder. Bendayan, M., Sandborn, E., Rasio, E. Lab. Invest. (1975) [Pubmed]
  24. Sister-chromatid exchanges in human lymphocytes induced by dimethoate, omethoate, deltamethrin, benomyl and their mixture. Dolara, P., Salvadori, M., Capobianco, T., Torricelli, F. Mutat. Res. (1992) [Pubmed]
  25. An octadecanoid pathway mutant (JL5) of tomato is compromised in signaling for defense against insect attack. Howe, G.A., Lightner, J., Browse, J., Ryan, C.A. Plant Cell (1996) [Pubmed]
  26. Hydrogen peroxide is generated systemically in plant leaves by wounding and systemin via the octadecanoid pathway. Orozco-Cardenas, M., Ryan, C.A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1999) [Pubmed]
  27. Peptide signals and their receptors in higher plants. Matsubayashi, Y., Yang, H., Sakagami, Y. Trends Plant Sci. (2001) [Pubmed]
  28. Suramin inhibits initiation of defense signaling by systemin, chitosan, and a beta-glucan elicitor in suspension-cultured Lycopersicon peruvianum cells. Stratmann, J., Scheer, J., Ryan, C.A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2000) [Pubmed]
  29. Acephate insecticide toxicity: safety conferred by inhibition of the bioactivating carboxyamidase by the metabolite methamidophos. Mahajna, M., Quistad, G.B., Casida, J.E. Chem. Res. Toxicol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  30. Dimethoate inhibits steroidogenesis by disrupting transcription of the steroidogenic acute regulatory (StAR) gene. Walsh, L.P., Webster, D.R., Stocco, D.M. J. Endocrinol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  31. Dimethoate-induced effects on antioxidant status of liver and brain of rats following subchronic exposure. Sharma, Y., Bashir, S., Irshad, M., Nag, T.C., Dogra, T.D. Toxicology (2005) [Pubmed]
  32. Joint effects of dimethoate and heavy metals on metabolic responses in a grasshopper (Chorthippus brunneus) from a heavy metals pollution gradient. Augustyniak, M., Babczyńska, A., Migula, P., Wilczek, G., Łaszczyca, P., Kafel, A., Augustyniak, M. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. C Toxicol. Pharmacol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  33. Leucine-rich repeat receptor kinases in plants: structure, function, and signal transduction pathways. Torii, K.U. Int. Rev. Cytol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  34. Systemin--a polypeptide defense signal in plants. Schaller, A., Ryan, C.A. Bioessays (1996) [Pubmed]
  35. Mechanism of the activation of proteinase inhibitor synthesis by systemin involves beta-sheet structure, a specific DNA-binding protein domain. Slósarek, G., Kalbitzer, H.R., Mucha, P., Rekowski, P., Kupryszewski, G., Giel-Pietraszuk, M., Szymański, M., Barciszewski, J. J. Struct. Biol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  36. Circadian expression and induction by wounding of tobacco genes for cysteine proteinase. Linthorst, H.J., van der Does, C., Brederode, F.T., Bol, J.F. Plant Mol. Biol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  37. Solid-phase microextraction for gas chromatographic/mass spectrometric analysis of dimethoate in human biological samples. Gallardo, E., Barroso, M., Margalho, C., Cruz, A., Vieira, D.N., López-Rivadulla, M. Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom. (2006) [Pubmed]
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