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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Ouabain interaction with cardiac Na+/K+-ATPase initiates signal cascades independent of changes in intracellular Na+ and Ca2+ concentrations.

We have shown previously that partial inhibition of the cardiac myocyte Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activates signal pathways that regulate myocyte growth and growth-related genes and that increases in intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) are two essential second messengers within these pathways. The aim of this work was to explore the relation between [Ca(2+)](i) and ROS. When myocytes were in a Ca(2+)-free medium, ouabain caused no change in [Ca(2+)](i), but it increased ROS as it did when the cells were in a Ca(2+)-containing medium. Ouabain-induced increase in ROS also occurred under conditions where there was little or no change in [Na(+)](i). Exposure of myocytes in Ca(2+)-free medium to monensin did not increase ROS. Increase in protein tyrosine phosphorylation, an early event induced by ouabain, was also independent of changes in [Ca(2+)](i) and [Na(+)](i). Ouabain-induced generation of ROS in myocytes was antagonized by genistein, a dominant negative Ras, and myxothiazol/diphenyleneiodonium, indicating a mitochondrial origin for the Ras-dependent ROS generation. These findings, along with our previous data, indicate that increases in [Ca(2+)](i) and ROS in cardiac myocytes are induced by two parallel pathways initiated at the plasma membrane: One being the ouabain-altered transient interactions of a fraction of the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase with neighboring proteins ( Src, growth factor receptors, adaptor proteins, and Ras) leading to ROS generation, and the other, inhibition of the transport function of another fraction of the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase leading to rise in [Ca(2+)](i). Evidently, the gene regulatory effects of ouabain in cardiac myocytes require the downstream collaborations of ROS and [Ca(2+)](i).[1]


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