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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Threonine deaminase from Salmonella typhimurium. Relationship between regulatory sites.

Kinetic analysis of the biosynthetic threonine deaminase, EC, from Samonella typhimurium yields hyperbolic substrate saturation curves in the absence of, and higher order substrate saturation curves in the presence of, L-isoleucine. L-Valine reverses this effect of L-isoleucine by restoring the hyperbolic substrate saturation curves. The inhibition of enzyme activity and the reversal of valine stimulation is a function of a second order concentration of L-isoleucine, whereas antagonism of inhibition is a function of first order concentration of valine. The antagonistic effects on enzyme activity of L-isoleucine and of L-valine appear as competitive in diagnostic plots. Threonine deaminase possesses two L-isoleucine binding sites (Kd equals 3.6 muM) and one L-valine binding site (Kd equals 26 muM); the binding of these ligands appear competitive. Exclusion of L-valine requires the binding of 2 molecules of L-isoleucine whereas binding of a single L-valine molecule prevents the binding of 2 L-isoleucine molecules. Cooperative binding of L-isoleucine is not observed under any of the conditions tested. Two cases, expressed in terms of modified Adair equations and based upon the assumption that L-threonine also serves as an activator ligand which binds to the L-valine site, are presented. Case I states that liganding of the activator sites must percede substrate-binding at the active site, and Case II states that the activator site liganding is required solely for reactivation of the L-isoleucine-inhibited enzyme. Analysis of kinetic data by a curve-fitting process suggests that Case II described the relationship between the activator site and the L-isoleucine sites. An enzymatically inactive derivative of threonine deaminase, prepared by reduction with borohydride, binds isoleucine and valine in a manner similar to native holoenzyme. Binding of L-threonine and L-valine to the derivatized enzyme is competitive. The Kd for threonine binding is 3 mM, which is in excellent agreement with the Kd determined by the curve fitting process. It is concluded that the modulation of threonine deaminase activity is wrought by interaction between inhibitor sites and an activator site rather than inhibitor and active sites and that induced transitions rather than concerted transitions more adequately describe the underlying regulatory principle.[1]


  1. Threonine deaminase from Salmonella typhimurium. Relationship between regulatory sites. Decedue, C.J., Hofler, J.G., Burns, R.O. J. Biol. Chem. (1975) [Pubmed]
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