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Chemical Compound Review

Isoleucine     (2R,3R)-2-amino-3-methyl- pentanoic acid

Synonyms: D-Isoleucine, DL-ISOLEUCINE, D-ISO-LEUCINE, H-D-lle-OH, AmbotzHAA1186, ...
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Disease relevance of Isoleucine


Psychiatry related information on Isoleucine


High impact information on Isoleucine

  • The synthesis of histones and DNA was examined in BHK cells arrested in G1 by isoleucine starvation and in cells progressing into the S phase upon isoleucine refeeding [11].
  • In isoleucine-depleted medium, wild-type SV40-transformed cells had fewer forks per unit length than those few nontransformed cells (1-3% of the population) which continued DNA replication [12].
  • A non-conserved isoleucine in the amino-terminal flanking region covers a hydrophobic patch and stabilizes the WW domain of human YAP65 in vitro [13].
  • Affected individuals are heterozygous for point mutations in the lysozyme gene that cause substitution of highly conserved residues, namely threonine for isoleucine at position 56 in one family, and histidine for aspartic acid at residue 67 in the other [14].
  • Comparison of the human mitochrondial DNA sequence of the cytochrome oxidase subunit II gene and the sequence of the corresponding beef heart protein shows that UGA is used as a tryptophan codon and not as a termination codon and suggests that AUA may be a methionine and not an isoleucine codon [15].

Chemical compound and disease context of Isoleucine


Biological context of Isoleucine


Anatomical context of Isoleucine


Associations of Isoleucine with other chemical compounds


Gene context of Isoleucine

  • Further, in isoleucine-deprived cells, Myc induces apoptosis without altering cdk activity [33].
  • The mutant carries two mutations in CMD1, isoleucine 100 is changed to asparagine and glutamic acid 104 is changed to valine [34].
  • A second mutation, a homoplasmic T-->A transition at nucleotide position 14596 in the ND6 gene, resulted in the substitution of a methionine for the isoleucine at amino acid residue 26 [35].
  • Among the other 11 unique mutations, 8 were small deletions or insertions predicted to cause frameshifts, 1 was a mutation to a stop codon, 1 was a missense mutation, and 1 was predicted to cause insertion of an isoleucine in the hect domain of the UBE3A protein, which functions in E2 binding and ubiquitin transfer [36].
  • The presence of a codon for isoleucine at the residues corresponding to codon 255 of rat CPA1 cDNA strongly suggests that the A form of human carboxypeptidase has been isolated [37].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Isoleucine


  1. Variant-sequence transthyretin (isoleucine 122) in late-onset cardiac amyloidosis in black Americans. Jacobson, D.R., Pastore, R.D., Yaghoubian, R., Kane, I., Gallo, G., Buck, F.S., Buxbaum, J.N. N. Engl. J. Med. (1997) [Pubmed]
  2. Hydrophobic stabilization in T4 lysozyme determined directly by multiple substitutions of Ile 3. Matsumura, M., Becktel, W.J., Matthews, B.W. Nature (1988) [Pubmed]
  3. Single amino-acid changes in HIV envelope affect viral tropism and receptor binding. Cordonnier, A., Montagnier, L., Emerman, M. Nature (1989) [Pubmed]
  4. Mutational isolation of a sieve for editing in a transfer RNA synthetase. Schmidt, E., Schimmel, P. Science (1994) [Pubmed]
  5. Association between glutathione S-transferase M1, P1, and T1 genetic polymorphisms and development of breast cancer. Helzlsouer, K.J., Selmin, O., Huang, H.Y., Strickland, P.T., Hoffman, S., Alberg, A.J., Watson, M., Comstock, G.W., Bell, D. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1998) [Pubmed]
  6. Familial Alzheimer's disease co-segregates with a Met146I1e substitution in presenilin-1. Jørgensen, P., Bus, C., Pallisgaard, N., Bryder, M., Jørgensen, A.L. Clin. Genet. (1996) [Pubmed]
  7. V180I mutation of the prion protein gene associated with atypical PrP(Sc) glycosylation. Chasseigneaux, S., Ha??k, S., Laffont-Proust, I., De Marco, O., Lenne, M., Brandel, J.P., Hauw, J.J., Laplanche, J.L., Peoc'h, K. Neurosci. Lett. (2006) [Pubmed]
  8. Peptides that regulate food intake: effect of peptide histidine isoleucine on consummatory behavior in rats. Olszewski, P.K., Wirth, M.M., Shaw, T.J., Grace, M.K., Levine, A.S. Am. J. Physiol. Regul. Integr. Comp. Physiol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  9. Genetic organization of the Salmonella typhimurium ilv gene cluster. Blazey, D.L., Burns, R.O. Mol. Gen. Genet. (1979) [Pubmed]
  10. Plasma glucose, non-esterified fatty acids and amino acids in Huntington's chorea. Phillipson, O.T., Bird, E.D. Clinical science and molecular medicine. (1977) [Pubmed]
  11. Synthesis of H1 histones by BHK cells in G1. Tarnowka, M.A., Baglioni, C., Basilico, C. Cell (1978) [Pubmed]
  12. Initiation points for DNA replication in nontransformed and simian virus 40-transformed Chinese hamster lung cells. Martin, R.G., Oppenheim, A. Cell (1977) [Pubmed]
  13. Structure of the WW domain of a kinase-associated protein complexed with a proline-rich peptide. Macias, M.J., Hyvönen, M., Baraldi, E., Schultz, J., Sudol, M., Saraste, M., Oschkinat, H. Nature (1996) [Pubmed]
  14. Human lysozyme gene mutations cause hereditary systemic amyloidosis. Pepys, M.B., Hawkins, P.N., Booth, D.R., Vigushin, D.M., Tennent, G.A., Soutar, A.K., Totty, N., Nguyen, O., Blake, C.C., Terry, C.J. Nature (1993) [Pubmed]
  15. A different genetic code in human mitochondria. Barrell, B.G., Bankier, A.T., Drouin, J. Nature (1979) [Pubmed]
  16. Substitution of leucine for isoleucine in a sequence highly conserved among retroviral envelope surface glycoproteins attenuates the lytic effect of the Friend murine leukemia virus. Sitbon, M., d'Auriol, L., Ellerbrok, H., André, C., Nishio, J., Perryman, S., Pozo, F., Hayes, S.F., Wehrly, K., Tambourin, P. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1991) [Pubmed]
  17. Differential effects of peptide histidine isoleucine (PHI) and related peptides on stimulation and suppression of neuroblastoma cell proliferation. A novel VIP-independent action of PHI via MAP kinase. Lelièvre, V., Pineau, N., Du, J., Wen, C.H., Nguyen, T., Janet, T., Muller, J.M., Waschek, J.A. J. Biol. Chem. (1998) [Pubmed]
  18. Polymeric sequences reveal a functional interrelationship between hydrophobicity and length of signal peptides. Chou, M.M., Kendall, D.A. J. Biol. Chem. (1990) [Pubmed]
  19. In vivo effect of asparagine in the hydrophobic region of the signal sequence. Goldstein, J., Lehnhardt, S., Inouye, M. J. Biol. Chem. (1991) [Pubmed]
  20. Switching recognition of two tRNA synthetases with an amino acid swap in a designed peptide. Auld, D.S., Schimmel, P. Science (1995) [Pubmed]
  21. Correlated measurements of DNA, RNA, and protein in individual cells by flow cytometry. Crissman, H.A., Darzynkiewicz, Z., Tobey, R.A., Steinkamp, J.A. Science (1985) [Pubmed]
  22. Evidence from cassette mutagenesis for a structure-function motif in a protein of unknown structure. Clarke, N.D., Lien, D.C., Schimmel, P. Science (1988) [Pubmed]
  23. Drosophila tissue-specific transcription factor NTF-1 contains a novel isoleucine-rich activation motif. Attardi, L.D., Tjian, R. Genes Dev. (1993) [Pubmed]
  24. Myc-mediated apoptosis requires wild-type p53 in a manner independent of cell cycle arrest and the ability of p53 to induce p21waf1/cip1. Wagner, A.J., Kokontis, J.M., Hay, N. Genes Dev. (1994) [Pubmed]
  25. NK3-specific natural killer cells are selectively inhibited by Bw4-positive HLA alleles with isoleucine 80. Cella, M., Longo, A., Ferrara, G.B., Strominger, J.L., Colonna, M. J. Exp. Med. (1994) [Pubmed]
  26. A single amino acid determines the immunostimulatory activity of interleukin 10. Ding, Y., Qin, L., Kotenko, S.V., Pestka, S., Bromberg, J.S. J. Exp. Med. (2000) [Pubmed]
  27. Modification of the effects of blood on amino acid metabolism by intravenous isoleucine. Deutz, N.E., Reijven, P.L., Bost, M.C., van Berlo, C.L., Soeters, P.B. Gastroenterology (1991) [Pubmed]
  28. Role of peptide histidine isoleucine in relaxation of cat lower esophageal sphincter. Biancani, P., Beinfeld, M.C., Hillemeier, C., Behar, J. Gastroenterology (1989) [Pubmed]
  29. Candidate gene for the chromosome 1 familial Alzheimer's disease locus. Levy-Lahad, E., Wasco, W., Poorkaj, P., Romano, D.M., Oshima, J., Pettingell, W.H., Yu, C.E., Jondro, P.D., Schmidt, S.D., Wang, K. Science (1995) [Pubmed]
  30. A genetic interaction between the vesicular acetylcholine transporter VAChT/UNC-17 and synaptobrevin/SNB-1 in C. elegans. Sandoval, G.M., Duerr, J.S., Hodgkin, J., Rand, J.B., Ruvkun, G. Nat. Neurosci. (2006) [Pubmed]
  31. A mutation of the glucocorticoid receptor in primary cortisol resistance. Malchoff, D.M., Brufsky, A., Reardon, G., McDermott, P., Javier, E.C., Bergh, C.H., Rowe, D., Malchoff, C.D. J. Clin. Invest. (1993) [Pubmed]
  32. Characterization of a transthyretin (prealbumin) variant associated with familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy type II (Indiana/Swiss). Dwulet, F.E., Benson, M.D. J. Clin. Invest. (1986) [Pubmed]
  33. Activation of cyclin-dependent kinases by Myc mediates induction of cyclin A, but not apoptosis. Rudolph, B., Saffrich, R., Zwicker, J., Henglein, B., Müller, R., Ansorge, W., Eilers, M. EMBO J. (1996) [Pubmed]
  34. A temperature-sensitive calmodulin mutant loses viability during mitosis. Davis, T.N. J. Cell Biol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  35. Genetic and biochemical impairment of mitochondrial complex I activity in a family with Leber hereditary optic neuropathy and hereditary spastic dystonia. De Vries, D.D., Went, L.N., Bruyn, G.W., Scholte, H.R., Hofstra, R.M., Bolhuis, P.A., van Oost, B.A. Am. J. Hum. Genet. (1996) [Pubmed]
  36. Mutation analysis of UBE3A in Angelman syndrome patients. Malzac, P., Webber, H., Moncla, A., Graham, J.M., Kukolich, M., Williams, C., Pagon, R.A., Ramsdell, L.A., Kishino, T., Wagstaff, J. Am. J. Hum. Genet. (1998) [Pubmed]
  37. Human carboxypeptidase A identifies a BglII RFLP and maps to 7q31-qter. Stewart, E.A., Craik, C.S., Hake, L., Bowcock, A.M. Am. J. Hum. Genet. (1990) [Pubmed]
  38. Systemic senile amyloidosis. Identification of a new prealbumin (transthyretin) variant in cardiac tissue: immunologic and biochemical similarity to one form of familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy. Gorevic, P.D., Prelli, F.C., Wright, J., Pras, M., Frangione, B. J. Clin. Invest. (1989) [Pubmed]
  39. Effects of prepro-vasoactive intestinal polypeptide-derived peptides on net fluid flux in small intestine of anesthetized rats. Spokes, R.A., Yiangou, Y., Chrysanthou, B.J., Bowles, M.P., Bloom, S.R. Gastroenterology (1989) [Pubmed]
  40. Enhanced polymerization of recombinant human deoxyhemoglobin beta 6 Glu----Ile. Baudin-Chich, V., Pagnier, J., Marden, M., Bohn, B., Lacaze, N., Kister, J., Schaad, O., Edelstein, S.J., Poyart, C. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1990) [Pubmed]
  41. A molecular defect causing fish eye disease: an amino acid exchange in lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) leads to the selective loss of alpha-LCAT activity. Funke, H., von Eckardstein, A., Pritchard, P.H., Albers, J.J., Kastelein, J.J., Droste, C., Assmann, G. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1991) [Pubmed]
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