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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Immulectin-2, a lipopolysaccharide-specific lectin from an insect, Manduca sexta, is induced in response to gram-negative bacteria.

A lipopolysaccharide-specific lectin, immulectin-2, was isolated from plasma of the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta. Immulectin-2 has specificity for xylose, glucose, lipopolysaccharide, and mannan. A cDNA clone encoding immulectin-2 was isolated from an Escherichia coli-induced M. sexta larval fat body cDNA library. The cDNA is 1253 base pairs long, with an open reading frame of 981 base pairs, encoding a 327-residue polypeptide. Immulectin-2 is a member of the C-type lectin superfamily. It consists of two carbohydrate recognition domains, which is similar to the organization of M. sexta immulectin-1. Immulectin-2 was present at a constitutively low level in plasma of control larvae and increased 3-4-fold after injection of Gram-negative bacteria or lipopolysaccharide. Immulectin-2 mRNA was detected in fat body of control larvae, and its level increased dramatically after injection of E. coli. The concentration of immulectin-2 in plasma did not change significantly after injection of Gram-positive bacteria or yeast, even though its mRNA level was increased by these treatments. Compared with immulectin-1, immulectin-2 has a more restricted specificity for binding to Gram-negative bacteria. Immulectin-2 at low physiological concentrations agglutinated E. coli in a calcium-dependent manner. It also bound to immobilized lipopolysaccharide from E. coli. Binding of immulectin-2 to lipopolysaccharide stimulated phenol oxidase activation in plasma. The properties of immulectin-2 are consistent with its function as a pattern recognition receptor for detection and defense against Gram-negative bacterial infection in M. sexta.[1]


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