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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Role of thyroglobulin endocytic pathways in the control of thyroid hormone release.

Thyroglobulin (Tg), the thyroid hormone precursor, is synthesized by thyrocytes and secreted into the colloid. Hormone release requires uptake of Tg by thyrocytes and degradation in lysosomes. This process must be precisely regulated. Tg uptake occurs mainly by micropinocytosis, which can result from both fluid-phase pinocytosis and receptor-mediated endocytosis. Because Tg is highly concentrated in the colloid, fluid-phase pinocytosis or low-affinity receptors should provide sufficient Tg uptake for hormone release; high-affinity receptors may serve to target Tg away from lysosomes, through recycling into the colloid or by transcytosis into the bloodstream. Several apical receptors have been suggested to play roles in Tg uptake and intracellular trafficking. A thyroid asialoglycoprotein receptor may internalize and recycle immature forms of Tg back to the colloid, a function also attributed to an as yet unidentified N-acetylglucosamine receptor. Megalin mediates Tg uptake by thyrocytes, especially under intense thyroid-stimulating hormone stimulation, resulting in transcytosis of Tg from the colloid to the bloodstream, a function that prevents excessive hormone release.[1]


  1. Role of thyroglobulin endocytic pathways in the control of thyroid hormone release. Marinò, M., McCluskey, R.T. Am. J. Physiol., Cell Physiol. (2000) [Pubmed]
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