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MeSH Review

Thyroid Gland

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Disease relevance of Thyroid Gland


Psychiatry related information on Thyroid Gland


High impact information on Thyroid Gland

  • Translation of cumulative thyroid dose attributable to 131I to predictions of increased rates of thyroid cancer appears problematic and is the subject of further study [11].
  • Perspective: National Cancer Institute summary report about estimated exposures and thyroid doses received from iodine 131 in fallout after Nevada atmospheric nuclear bomb tests [11].
  • Environmental 131I contamination from atmospheric nuclear bomb tests conducted at the NTS from 1951 to 1958 exposed Americans nationwide to a cumulative average dose of 1 to 4 rad to the thyroid gland [11].
  • Postoperative thyroid suppression by exogenous thyroid hormone postoperatively appeared to improve survival [12].
  • Molecular mechanisms of action of steroid/thyroid receptor superfamily members [13].

Chemical compound and disease context of Thyroid Gland


Biological context of Thyroid Gland

  • We have analysed 118 families with inherited medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) for mutations of the RET proto-oncogene [18].
  • Germline mutations of the PTEN gene in Cowden disease, an inherited breast and thyroid cancer syndrome [19].
  • Expression of Titf2 in thyroid cell precursors is down-regulated as they cease migration, suggesting that this factor is involved in the process of thyroid gland morphogenesis [20].
  • The therapeutic applications of knowledge gained about the basic mechanisms of thyroid hormone action should ultimately extend beyond thyroid disease to processes regulated or influenced by T3; these include cardiac function, lipid metabolism, pituitary hormone secretion, and neural development [21].
  • Here we show that preventing the starvation-induced fall in leptin with exogenous leptin substantially blunts the changes in gonadal, adrenal and thyroid axes in male mice, and prevents the starvation-induced delay in ovulation in female mice [22].

Anatomical context of Thyroid Gland


Associations of Thyroid Gland with chemical compounds

  • Molecular analysis of the sodium/iodide symporter: impact on thyroid and extrathyroid pathophysiology [27].
  • Suppression of thyroid radioiodine uptake by various doses of stable iodide [28].
  • Simultaneous assays of growth promotion and cyclic AMP stimulation may be useful in the care of patients with autoimmune thyroid disease [29].
  • These antibodies also occurred in four of nine children with glucose intolerance, in one of 24 healthy children and in nondiabetic children with thyroid disorders [30].
  • The pattern of thyrotropin secretion was analyzed in seven euthyroid women, before and after withdrawal of long-term thyroid hormone, by serial measurements of thyroid 131l uptake, serum thyroxine, tri-iodothyronine, and thyrotropin concentrations, and the response to thyrotropin-releasing hormone [31].

Gene context of Thyroid Gland

  • It stimulates thyroid functions using specific membrane TSH receptor (TSHR) that belongs to the superfamily of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) [32].
  • These genetic alterations implicate PAX8 in the pathogenesis of TD and in normal thyroid development [33].
  • Our results demonstrate that pendrin functions as a transporter of chloride and iodide, but not sulfate, and may provide insight into thyroid physiology and the pathophysiology of Pendred syndrome [34].
  • Follicular cells of the thyroid gland require Pax8 gene function [35].
  • Thrb-/- mice provide a model for the human endocrine disorder of resistance to thyroid hormone (RTH), which is typically associated with dominant mutations in Tr beta [36].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Thyroid Gland


  1. Neuroendocrine-immune system interactions and autoimmunity. Wilder, R.L. Annu. Rev. Immunol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  2. Increased need for thyroxine during pregnancy in women with primary hypothyroidism. Mandel, S.J., Larsen, P.R., Seely, E.W., Brent, G.A. N. Engl. J. Med. (1990) [Pubmed]
  3. Neonatal thyroid function after propylthiouracil therapy for maternal Graves' disease. Cheron, R.G., Kaplan, M.M., Larsen, P.R., Selenkow, H.A., Crigler, J.F. N. Engl. J. Med. (1981) [Pubmed]
  4. Elevated histaminase (diamine oxidase) activity in small-cell carcinoma of the lung. Baylin, S.B., Abeloff, M.D., Wieman, K.C., Tomford, J.W., Ettinger, D.S. N. Engl. J. Med. (1975) [Pubmed]
  5. Germline mutations in the thyrotropin receptor gene cause non-autoimmune autosomal dominant hyperthyroidism. Duprez, L., Parma, J., Van Sande, J., Allgeier, A., Leclère, J., Schvartz, C., Delisle, M.J., Decoulx, M., Orgiazzi, J., Dumont, J. Nat. Genet. (1994) [Pubmed]
  6. Genetic and clinical features of 42 kindreds with resistance to thyroid hormone. The National Institutes of Health Prospective Study. Brucker-Davis, F., Skarulis, M.C., Grace, M.B., Benichou, J., Hauser, P., Wiggs, E., Weintraub, B.D. Ann. Intern. Med. (1995) [Pubmed]
  7. Suppression of the deafness and thyroid dysfunction in Thrb-null mice by an independent mutation in the Thra thyroid hormone receptor alpha gene. Ng, L., Rüsch, A., Amma, L.L., Nordström, K., Erway, L.C., Vennström, B., Forrest, D. Hum. Mol. Genet. (2001) [Pubmed]
  8. Endogenous sex steroids and bone mineral density in older women and men: the Rancho Bernardo Study. Greendale, G.A., Edelstein, S., Barrett-Connor, E. J. Bone Miner. Res. (1997) [Pubmed]
  9. Distinguishing features of idiopathic flushing and carcinoid syndrome. Aldrich, L.B., Moattari, A.R., Vinik, A.I. Arch. Intern. Med. (1988) [Pubmed]
  10. Tricyclic antidepressants, thyroid function, and their relationship with the behavioral responses in rats. Massol, J., Martin, P., Chatelain, F., Puech, A.J. Biol. Psychiatry (1990) [Pubmed]
  11. Perspective: National Cancer Institute summary report about estimated exposures and thyroid doses received from iodine 131 in fallout after Nevada atmospheric nuclear bomb tests. Hundahl, S.A. CA: a cancer journal for clinicians. (1998) [Pubmed]
  12. Thyroid cancer: some basic considerations. Wanebo, H.J., Andrews, W., Kaiser, D.L. CA: a cancer journal for clinicians. (1983) [Pubmed]
  13. Molecular mechanisms of action of steroid/thyroid receptor superfamily members. Tsai, M.J., O'Malley, B.W. Annu. Rev. Biochem. (1994) [Pubmed]
  14. Combination of potassium iodide and propranolol in preparation of patients with Graves' disease for thyroid surgery. Feek, C.M., Sawers, J.S., Irvine, W.J., Beckett, G.J., Ratcliffe, W.A., Toft, A.D. N. Engl. J. Med. (1980) [Pubmed]
  15. Central hypothyroidism associated with retinoid X receptor-selective ligands. Sherman, S.I., Gopal, J., Haugen, B.R., Chiu, A.C., Whaley, K., Nowlakha, P., Duvic, M. N. Engl. J. Med. (1999) [Pubmed]
  16. Antithyroid drug therapy for Graves' disease during pregnancy. Optimal regimen for fetal thyroid status. Momotani, N., Noh, J., Oyanagi, H., Ishikawa, N., Ito, K. N. Engl. J. Med. (1986) [Pubmed]
  17. Thyroid hormone metabolism and thyroid diseases in chronic renal failure. Kaptein, E.M. Endocr. Rev. (1996) [Pubmed]
  18. Specific mutations of the RET proto-oncogene are related to disease phenotype in MEN 2A and FMTC. Mulligan, L.M., Eng, C., Healey, C.S., Clayton, D., Kwok, J.B., Gardner, E., Ponder, M.A., Frilling, A., Jackson, C.E., Lehnert, H. Nat. Genet. (1994) [Pubmed]
  19. Germline mutations of the PTEN gene in Cowden disease, an inherited breast and thyroid cancer syndrome. Liaw, D., Marsh, D.J., Li, J., Dahia, P.L., Wang, S.I., Zheng, Z., Bose, S., Call, K.M., Tsou, H.C., Peacocke, M., Eng, C., Parsons, R. Nat. Genet. (1997) [Pubmed]
  20. A mouse model for hereditary thyroid dysgenesis and cleft palate. De Felice, M., Ovitt, C., Biffali, E., Rodriguez-Mallon, A., Arra, C., Anastassiadis, K., Macchia, P.E., Mattei, M.G., Mariano, A., Schöler, H., Macchia, V., Di Lauro, R. Nat. Genet. (1998) [Pubmed]
  21. The molecular basis of thyroid hormone action. Brent, G.A. N. Engl. J. Med. (1994) [Pubmed]
  22. Role of leptin in the neuroendocrine response to fasting. Ahima, R.S., Prabakaran, D., Mantzoros, C., Qu, D., Lowell, B., Maratos-Flier, E., Flier, J.S. Nature (1996) [Pubmed]
  23. Pendred syndrome (goitre and sensorineural hearing loss) maps to chromosome 7 in the region containing the nonsyndromic deafness gene DFNB4. Coyle, B., Coffey, R., Armour, J.A., Gausden, E., Hochberg, Z., Grossman, A., Britton, K., Pembrey, M., Reardon, W., Trembath, R. Nat. Genet. (1996) [Pubmed]
  24. Propranolol increases binding of thyrotropin to thyroid membranes. Marshall, N.J., von Borcke, S., Florin-Christensen, A., Ekins, R.P. Nature (1977) [Pubmed]
  25. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors: a nuclear receptor signaling pathway in lipid physiology. Lemberger, T., Desvergne, B., Wahli, W. Annu. Rev. Cell Dev. Biol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  26. Growth hormone-releasing hormone-producing tumors: clinical, biochemical, and morphological manifestations. Sano, T., Asa, S.L., Kovacs, K. Endocr. Rev. (1988) [Pubmed]
  27. Molecular analysis of the sodium/iodide symporter: impact on thyroid and extrathyroid pathophysiology. De La Vieja, A., Dohan, O., Levy, O., Carrasco, N. Physiol. Rev. (2000) [Pubmed]
  28. Suppression of thyroid radioiodine uptake by various doses of stable iodide. Sternthal, E., Lipworth, L., Stanley, B., Abreau, C., Fang, S.L., Braverman, L.E. N. Engl. J. Med. (1980) [Pubmed]
  29. Antibodies that promote thyroid growth. A distinct population of thyroid-stimulating autoantibodies. Valente, W.A., Vitti, P., Rotella, C.M., Vaughan, M.M., Aloj, S.M., Grollman, E.F., Ambesi-Impiombato, F.S., Kohn, L.D. N. Engl. J. Med. (1983) [Pubmed]
  30. Islet-cell-surface antibodies in juvenile diabetes mellitus. Lernmark, A., Freedman, Z.R., Hofmann, C., Rubenstein, A.H., Steiner, D.F., Jackson, R.L., Winter, R.J., Traisman, H.S. N. Engl. J. Med. (1978) [Pubmed]
  31. Recovery of pituitary thyrotropic function after withdrawal of prolonged thyroid-suppression therapy. Vagenakis, A.G., Braverman, L.E., Azizi, F., Portinay, G.I., Ingbar, S.H. N. Engl. J. Med. (1975) [Pubmed]
  32. Thyroid-stimulating hormone and thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor structure-function relationships. Szkudlinski, M.W., Fremont, V., Ronin, C., Weintraub, B.D. Physiol. Rev. (2002) [Pubmed]
  33. PAX8 mutations associated with congenital hypothyroidism caused by thyroid dysgenesis. Macchia, P.E., Lapi, P., Krude, H., Pirro, M.T., Missero, C., Chiovato, L., Souabni, A., Baserga, M., Tassi, V., Pinchera, A., Fenzi, G., Grüters, A., Busslinger, M., Di Lauro, R. Nat. Genet. (1998) [Pubmed]
  34. The Pendred syndrome gene encodes a chloride-iodide transport protein. Scott, D.A., Wang, R., Kreman, T.M., Sheffield, V.C., Karniski, L.P. Nat. Genet. (1999) [Pubmed]
  35. Follicular cells of the thyroid gland require Pax8 gene function. Mansouri, A., Chowdhury, K., Gruss, P. Nat. Genet. (1998) [Pubmed]
  36. Thyroid hormone receptor beta is essential for development of auditory function. Forrest, D., Erway, L.C., Ng, L., Altschuler, R., Curran, T. Nat. Genet. (1996) [Pubmed]
  37. Relation between effective radiation dose and outcome of radioiodine therapy for thyroid cancer. Maxon, H.R., Thomas, S.R., Hertzberg, V.S., Kereiakes, J.G., Chen, I.W., Sperling, M.I., Saenger, E.L. N. Engl. J. Med. (1983) [Pubmed]
  38. The Drosophila gene knirps-related is a member of the steroid-receptor gene superfamily. Oro, A.E., Ong, E.S., Margolis, J.S., Posakony, J.W., McKeown, M., Evans, R.M. Nature (1988) [Pubmed]
  39. Effect of oxygen pressure during culture on survival of mouse thyroid allografts. Talmage, D.W., Dart, G.A. Science (1978) [Pubmed]
  40. Activation of transplant immunity: effect of donor leukocytes on thyroid allograft rejection. Talmage, D.W., Dart, G., Radovich, J., Lafferty, K.J. Science (1976) [Pubmed]
  41. Functional interactions of T cells with endothelial cells: the role of CD40L-CD40-mediated signals. Yellin, M.J., Brett, J., Baum, D., Matsushima, A., Szabolcs, M., Stern, D., Chess, L. J. Exp. Med. (1995) [Pubmed]
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