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Gene Review

TG  -  thyroglobulin

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: AITD3, TGN, Tg, Thyroglobulin
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Disease relevance of TG


Psychiatry related information on TG


High impact information on TG


Chemical compound and disease context of TG


Biological context of TG

  • These results show that Ttf1 haploinsufficiency causes a reduction in the expression of TSHr and thyroglobulin, genes with TTF1 binding sites in their promoter regions [18].
  • Regulation of thyroid peroxidase and thyroglobulin gene expression by thyrotropin in cultured human thyroid cells [19].
  • TSH-R expression levels were variable, but displayed a close correlation to the expression of thyroid peroxidase (r = 0.703; P < 0.05), thyroglobulin (r = 0.817; P < 0.01), and the nuclear oncogene c-fos (r = 0.935; P < 0.001), but not c-myc [20].
  • Genetic linkage analysis of the loci for TPO and Tg autoantibodies with 28 polymorphic serological markers (including HLA and Gm allotypes) was carried out in 9 families [21].
  • Further studies using a comprehensive panel of gene probes to analyze DNA from families with autoimmune thyroid disease should permit the localization of the gene cluster responsible for regulating the ability to produce autoantibodies to TPO and Tg in man [21].

Anatomical context of TG

  • RESULTS: TG and TPO were identified in 13 patients (54.2%) with thyroid carcinoma, which includes five of eight patients with no clinical evidence of disease at the time of blood collection [22].
  • We investigated the secretion and cell surface expression of PDI and other chaperones in the FRTL5 thyroid cell line, and then studied the characteristics of the interaction between TG and PDI [23].
  • After maturation and hormone formation, TG is endocytosed and delivered to lysosomes [23].
  • The notion that PDI acts as an "escort" for immature TG in acidic post-endoplasmic reticulum compartments is discussed [23].
  • However, as results of TPO-RT-PCR correlate significantly with lymph node status, grading and serum TG measurements in patients with non-metastatic disease, TPO seems to be an interesting molecular marker to look at in follow-up studies [24].

Associations of TG with chemical compounds

  • The process of thyroid hormone synthesis, which occurs in the lumen of the thyroid follicles, results from an oxidative reaction leading, as side effects, to the multimerization of thyroglobulin (TG), the prothyroid hormone [25].
  • TG activity is not duplicated by thyroid hormones or iodide [26].
  • METHODS: Fifty-two HIV-infected children receiving HAART were assessed for signs of thyroid dysfunction and serum concentrations of thyrotropin (TSH), free thyroxin (FT4), free triiodothyronine (FT3), thyroglobulin (TG), reverse triiodothyronine (rT3), anti-TG and antimicrosomal (anti-TSM) antibodies [27].
  • The coupling reaction was carried out by incubating newly iodinated thyroglobulin with TPO, diiodotyrosine, a coupling stimulator, and a H2O2-generating system (glucose and glucose oxidase) for 20 min at 37 C. After thyroglobulin was digested with Pronase, the thyroid hormone content of the thyroid digest was measured by RIA [13].
  • 0. Coupling activity in the presence of H2O2 and TPO was 43 +/- 5.0 ng T3/mg thyroglobulin (mean +/- SD of triplicate samples), and addition of diiodotyrosine to the H2O2-TPO system caused a nearly 3-fold increase in coupling activity [13].

Physical interactions of TG


Enzymatic interactions of TG

  • We have previously demonstrated that thyroid peroxidase (TPO) not only catalyzes the iodination of thyroglobulin and other proteins, but that it also catalyzes the intramolecular conversion of DIT residues to T4 (coupling reaction) [32].
  • Based on these results, it is proposed that PDI catalyzes the oligomerization of Tg through the disulfide linkage and its deoligomerization in the molecular fate, and this process may require a specific molecular form of Tg, optimally unfolded/reduced, in a proper redox state [33].
  • Kinetics of the iodination and the coupling reaction in thyroglobulin catalyzed by lactoperoxidase and chloramine T [34].

Regulatory relationships of TG


Other interactions of TG

  • This sample was also positive for TG and TPO [22].
  • There was 100% concordance between TSHR and Tg mRNA RT-PCR results [40].
  • Moreover, the addition of both type I IFNs clearly reduced the TSH-stimulated protein expression of Tg, TPO, and NIS after 72 h of exposure [41].
  • Pax8 increased the specific transcriptional activity of the Tg promoter about threefold, whereas cotransfection with the homeodomain-containing protein TTF-1 stimulated promoter activity from six- to tenfold [37].
  • After 1 min of incubation in a system containing goiter thyroglobulin, I-, and H2O2, the pH optimum of MPO-catalyzed iodination was markedly acidic (approximately 4.0), compared to LPO (approximately 5.4) and TPO (approximately 6.6) [15].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of TG

  • RT-PCR positivity for TG and TPO mRNA was higher in patients with carcinoma than in patients with benign lesions (P = .002) [22].
  • An evaluation of the relative concentrations of TG and TPO in different subcellular compartments was carried out in stimulated human follicular cells using thin-frozen sections and the immunogold technique [28].
  • In the study and control groups respectively, 13 and two patients demonstrated positive titres of TG, TPO or both thyroid antibodies (Fisher's exact test: P = 0.002) [42].
  • As described for isolating serum TgPOAb, we panned the phage display library by alternating from Tg- to TPO-coated ELISA wells [43].
  • Thyrotropin receptor/thyroglobulin messenger ribonucleic acid in peripheral blood and fine-needle aspiration cytology: diagnostic synergy for detecting thyroid cancer [40].


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