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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Effect of splanchnic nerve stimulation on glucagon and insulin output in the dog.

In order to study the role of the sympathetic nerves in the regulation of glucagon and insulin secretion, the distal stump of the left splanchnic nerve was electrically stimulated at the diaphragmatic level in the anesthetized dog under bilateral ligation of the adrenal veins. During stimulation, plasma glucose concentration rose rapidly, and pancreatic vein plasma concentration of glucagon increased along with pancreatic vein blood flow, indicating a greater output of glucagon. Insulin output in pancreatic vein plasma was slowly elevated despite continued stimulation. Pretreatment with propranolol resulted in a decline of the basal output of both glucagon and insulin and in their marked initial fall at the onset of the stimulus. However, glucagon output still showed a vigorous increase during neural stimulation whereas insulin output remained totally suppressed, but showed a rebound rise after cessation of stimulation. Pretreatment with phentolamine evoked an enhancement in both basal output of insulin and its response to splanchnic stimulation, but did not exert any marked effect on glucagon output. Pretreatment with atropine inhibited the basal output of glucagon and insulin, but the response of insulin output to splanchnic stimulation was not suppressed, thus excluding the possibility that activation of aberrant parasympathetic nerve fibers located in the splanchnic nerve would be responsible for the delayed increase in insulin release. The present results indicate that glucagon secretion may be regulated by different receptor mechanisms from those involved in insulin release following sympathetic activation.[1]


  1. Effect of splanchnic nerve stimulation on glucagon and insulin output in the dog. Kaneto, A., Kajinuma, H., Kosaka, K. Endocrinology (1975) [Pubmed]
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