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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Biochemical and genetic diagnosis of the primary hyperoxalurias: a review.

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The primary hyperoxalurias are a group of inherited disorders of endogenous oxalate overproduction. Diagnosis of the two best-characterized disorders, primary hyperoxaluria (PH) Types 1 and 2, is achieved by sequential measurement of alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase and glyoxylate reductase enzyme activity in a single needle liver biopsy. While genetic analysis of PH2 is still at a relatively early stage, the AGXT gene defective in the Type 1 disorder is well characterized, and a number of mutations have been identified. METHODS: To determine whether mutation analysis could replace enzymatic analysis for the diagnosis of PH1, DNA samples from 127 consecutive unrelated patients in whom there was a high clinical suspicion of primary hyperoxaluria were analyzed for the presence of the G630A and T853C mutations, which together account for approximately 34% of the mutant alleles in our patient cohort. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: The sensitivity of mutation detection was 47% in those patients with enzymologically confirmed Type 1 disease, showing that mutation analysis cannot effectively replace enzymology at the present time. However, there is little doubt of the value of genetic methods (mutation and linkage analysis) for diagnosing PH1 (and eventually PH2) in other family members and for prenatal diagnosis and carrier testing.[1]


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