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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Spider fauna in apple ecosystem of western Oregon and its field susceptibility to chemical and microbial insecticides.

Twelve families, 26 genera, and 30 identifiable spider species were found in surveys conducted in apple orchards of western Oregon. The Salticidae, Linyphiidae, Clubionidae, Philodromidae, and Theridiidae comprised 85.56% ofthe total spiders collected. The most common species in order of abundance were Metaphidippus aeneolus Curtis, Spirembolus mundus Chamberlin & Ivie, Cheiracanthium inclusum (Hentz), Philodromus spectabilis Keyserling, Eris marginata (Walckenaer), and Theridion lawrencei Gertsch & Archer. Individuals of these species were collected in 50-60% of the samples and were most abundant in the month of August. The Bacillus thuringiensis-based insecticides, DiPel (100 Million International Units/100 liters) and MVP (250 ml/100 liters), summer oil (0.5-1.0 liter/100 liters), the insect growth regulator (IGR) diflubenzuron (3-12 g/100 liters), and organophosphate Phosmet (6-60 g/100 liters) were generally harmless (P > 0.05) to these spider species. Full field rates of organophosphate azinphosmethyl (25 g/100 liters) and carbamate carbaryl (60 g/100 liters) were slightly to moderately harmful (25-75% mortality). These insecticides at reduced rates (azinphosmethyl 2.5-5.0 g and carbaryl 12 g/100 liters) applied alone or in combination with DiPel and MVP, had a negligible effect. Full rates of pyrethroids esfenvalerate (2.5 g/100 liters) and permethrin (4.0 g/100 liters) were moderately to highly harmful (50-75% mortality) and their reduced rates (esfenvalerate 0.25-0.50 g and permethrin 0.4-0.8 g/100 liters) were selective to the spiders.[1]


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