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Chemical Compound Review

Phosmet     2- (dimethoxyphosphinothioylsulfa nylmethyl)...

Synonyms: Kemolate, Ftalophos, Percolate, Phtalofos, Prolate, ...
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Disease relevance of IMIDAN

  • A more subtle form of mucosal disruption may occur due to mucosal erosions and also to defects in intestinal crypts secondary to acute and subclinical enteritides that allow intraluminal bacterial gas under pressure to percolate into the bowel wall layers, particularly the submucosa (29) [1].
  • The disorder progressed over 9 days following the fifth weekly spraying with the organophosphate (OP) insecticide, phosmet, with limited symptoms of acute toxicity [2].
  • Indigenous enterovirus levels in percolate waters also constituted only a small portion of those found in the wastewaters [3].
  • A dose of 30 mg/kg of phthalophos on day 9 or day 13 of pregnancy causes developmental abnormalities, including hyponathia and hydrocephaly [4].
  • Mutagenic activity of phosmet, the active component of the organophosphorus insecticide Decemtione EK 20 in Salmonella and Saccharomyces assays [5].

Psychiatry related information on IMIDAN

  • We formulate the Metapopulation Cultural Niche Construction (MPCNC) model by defining the cultural niche induced by the first trait as the construction of a social interaction network on which the second trait may percolate [6].

High impact information on IMIDAN

  • The T-lymphocyte cell-surface molecule CD2 is rapidly recruited into this signaling domain, whereas TCRs progressively percolate from the entire T-cell surface into the phosphorylation area [7].
  • The number of glutathione S-transferase placental-form-positive liver-cell foci was significantly increased in the captan- and phosmet-treated groups [8].
  • After intravenous administration, horseradish peroxidase was found to percolate to the intercellular space of conjunctival epithelia and was restricted by the tight junctions of the superficial epithelium [9].
  • Focally red blood cells percolate between and mix with the spindle cells, recapitulating superficially a Kaposi's like appearance, but we identified no mitotic figures [10].
  • The present model, based on a simple crosslinking mechanism previously proposed by other authors, assumes that activation of B-cells is possible once crosslinks of mIgs percolate and that percolation of crosslinks can only happen within a relatively short time tau [11].

Chemical compound and disease context of IMIDAN


Biological context of IMIDAN

  • A 0.06 mg/kg phthalophos dose does not affect the course of embryogenesis in white rats [4].
  • Phosmet induces up-regulation of surface levels of the cellular prion protein [12].
  • Of this, 600-900 kg C is in microbial biomass, and much of the rest is soluble compounds that leach into the rocks and possibly percolate to the valleys, providing a source of organic matter for lakes, rivers, and soils [15].
  • Up to 9 weeks of gestation, foetal nutrition appears to depend on uterine glandular secretions that are delivered into the intervillous space, supplemented by maternal plasma proteins and other molecules that may percolate through the trophoblastic shell [16].
  • Phosmet, the active component of the organophosphorus insecticide Decemtione EK 20, was shown to be mutagenic in the standard Ames Salmonella/mammalian microsome assay in the absence and presence of metabolic activation [5].

Anatomical context of IMIDAN

  • These photostable fluorescent probes (when applied with 2% DMSO) percolate through the enveloping layer epithelium of the embryo, and localize in yolk-containing cytoplasm and interstitial space, respectively, owing to their different physiochemical characteristics [17].
  • In this study, we focused on the reaction possibilities of phosmet in the presence of lipophilic substances with olefinic structure elements, as they are frequently found in animal fur lipids, especially in wool wax [18].
  • Secreted enamel proteins at first do not accumulate in a layer but, in part, percolate into the developing predentin and subjacent odontoblast layer [19].
  • Decreased (32)P incorporation in phosphatidylinositol was found with phosmet (PM), AM, and chlorpyriphos (CHL).The effects of these xenobiotics on PI4-kinase activity using different subcellular fractions were also examined [20].
  • It is hypothesised that if these compounds arrive in the blood circulation, they must percolate through the epithelial cell layer [21].

Associations of IMIDAN with other chemical compounds

  • Schwertmannite rich sediment was subjected to three different flow rates (0, 5, and 20 L m(-2) a(-1)), two percolate chemistries (1/1 mmol L(-1) vs 10/15 mmol L(-1) sulfate/ferrous iron, pH 5), and DOC input (approximately 2.5 mmol C L(-1)) [22].
  • While the lower threshold for acaricidal effect in vitro was approximately 1-2 micrograms g-1 for all three OPs tested, a significant difference in the higher concentration range was seen between the dose-response curve for parathion and the curves for phoxim and phosmet [13].
  • The organophosphate insecticide phosmet [phosphorodithioic acid, s-((1,3-dihydro-1,3-dioxo-2H-isoindol-2yl)methyl), o,o-dimethyl ester] is used to control red-legged earth mites (Halotydeus destructor), lucerne flea (Sminthurus viridis), and Oriental fruit moth (Cydia molesta) in horticulture and vegetable growing [23].
  • Regarding specificity, both monoclonal immunoassays highly cross-reacted with azinphos-ethyl and phosmet [24].
  • The extents of methylation were in the range of 5-10 mumol 7-MeG/mol guanine for trichlorphon and dimethoate and of 0.2-0.4 for phosmet and bromophos, for high doses, respectively Excretion half-lives of 7-MeG were differing between trichlorphon (5 hrs, high dose, and 15-17 hrs, low dose) and dimethoate (23-160 hrs, high dose) [25].

Gene context of IMIDAN

  • These increases appear to be due to post-transcriptional mechanisms, since PrP mRNA levels as assessed by Northern blotting were unaffected by phosmet treatment [12].
  • Under optimum conditions, it was possible to percolate up to 250 ml of water solution onto both C18 and SDB-cation-exchange cartridges with quantitative recoveries for all the analytes tested [26].
  • The cartilage preferentially grew out directly onto the cellulose acetate membrane when the pore size was optimal for anchorage and the BMP/iNCP was suspended on the surface of the explant to either simultaneously percolate through the explant or diffuse through the culture medium [27].
  • High-dose exposure to systemic phosmet insecticide modifies the phosphatidylinositol anchor on the prion protein: the origins of new variant transmissible spongiform encephalopathies [28]?
  • Studies on the putative interactions between the organophosphorus insecticide Phosmet and recombinant mouse PrP and its implication in the BSE epidemic [29].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of IMIDAN


  1. Pneumatosis intestinalis: a review. Pear, B.L. Radiology. (1998) [Pubmed]
  2. Pathophysiological studies of neuromuscular function in subacute organophosphate poisoning induced by phosmet. Good, J.L., Khurana, R.K., Mayer, R.F., Cintra, W.M., Albuquerque, E.X. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatr. (1993) [Pubmed]
  3. Fate of virus in wastewater applied to slow-infiltration land treatment systems. Schaub, S.A., Bausum, H.T., Taylor, G.W. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (1982) [Pubmed]
  4. Experimental study of the effect of a series of phosphoroorganic pesticides (Dipterex and Imidan) on embryogenesis. Martson, L.V., Voronina, V.M. Environ. Health Perspect. (1976) [Pubmed]
  5. Mutagenic activity of phosmet, the active component of the organophosphorus insecticide Decemtione EK 20 in Salmonella and Saccharomyces assays. Vlcková, V., Miadoková, E., Podstavková, S., Vlcek, D. Mutat. Res. (1993) [Pubmed]
  6. Cultural niche construction in a metapopulation. Borenstein, E., Kendal, J., Feldman, M. Theoretical population biology. (2006) [Pubmed]
  7. Exclusion of CD45 from the T-cell receptor signaling area in antigen-stimulated T lymphocytes. Leupin, O., Zaru, R., Laroche, T., Müller, S., Valitutti, S. Curr. Biol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  8. Carcinogenic potential of some pesticides in a medium-term multi-organ bioassay in rats. Hasegawa, R., Cabral, R., Hoshiya, T., Hakoi, K., Ogiso, T., Boonyaphiphat, P., Shirai, T., Ito, N. Int. J. Cancer (1993) [Pubmed]
  9. Paracellular permeability of corneal and conjunctival epithelia. Huang, A.J., Tseng, S.C., Kenyon, K.R. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (1989) [Pubmed]
  10. Intravascular Kaposi's-like spindle cell proliferation of the capsular vessels of follicular-derived thyroid carcinomas. Baloch, Z.W., LiVolsi, V.A. Mod. Pathol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  11. Crosslinking of membrane immunoglobulins and B-cell activation: a simple model based on percolation theory. Faro, J., Velasco, S. Proc. Biol. Sci. (1993) [Pubmed]
  12. Phosmet induces up-regulation of surface levels of the cellular prion protein. Gordon, I., Abdulla, E.M., Campbell, I.C., Whatley, S.A. Neuroreport (1998) [Pubmed]
  13. Evaluation of an in vitro method for acaricidal effect. Activity of parathion, phosmet and phoxim against Sarcoptes scabiei. Brimer, L., Henriksen, S.A., Gyrd-Hansen, N., Rasmussen, F. Vet. Parasitol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  14. Evaluation of phosmet for the control of the common scabies mite on cattle. Roberts, I.H., Wilson, G.I., Meleney, W.P. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. (1978) [Pubmed]
  15. Long-term productivity in the cryptoendolithic microbial community of the Ross Desert, Antarctica. Friedmann, E.I., Kappen, L., Meyer, M.A., Nienow, J.A. Microb. Ecol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  16. The human first trimester gestational sac limits rather than facilitates oxygen transfer to the foetus--a review. Jauniaux, E., Gulbis, B., Burton, G.J. Placenta (2003) [Pubmed]
  17. Confocal microscopic analysis of morphogenetic movements. Cooper, M.S., D'Amico, L.A., Henry, C.A. Methods Cell Biol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  18. Photodegradation chemistry of the insecticide phosmet in lipid models and in the presence of wool wax, employing a 15N-labeled compound. Sinderhauf, K., Schwack, W. J. Agric. Food Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  19. Overview of morphological changes in enamel organ cells associated with major events in amelogenesis. Smith, C.E., Nanci, A. Int. J. Dev. Biol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  20. Organophosphorous and organochlorine pesticides affect human placental phosphoinositides metabolism and PI-4 kinase activity. Souza, M.S., Magnarelli de Potas, G., Pechén de D'Angelo, A.M. J. Biochem. Mol. Toxicol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  21. Preventive and curative effects of probiotics in atopic patients. Bongaerts, G.P., Severijnen, R.S. Med. Hypotheses (2005) [Pubmed]
  22. Experimentally altered groundwater inflow remobilizes acidity from sediments of an iron rich and acidic lake. Knorr, K.H., Blodau, C. Environ. Sci. Technol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  23. Sorption and degradation characteristics of phosmet in two contrasting Australian soils. Suter, H.C., White, R.E., Heng, L.K., Douglas, L.A. J. Environ. Qual. (2002) [Pubmed]
  24. Development of monoclonal ELISAs for azinphos-methyl. 2. Assay optimization and water sample analysis. Mercader, J.V., Montoya, A. J. Agric. Food Chem. (1999) [Pubmed]
  25. A comparative study of guanine N7-alkylation in mice in vivo by the organophosphorus insecticides trichlorphon, dimethoate, phosmet and bromophos. Dedek, W., Grahl, R., Schmidt, R. Acta pharmacologica et toxicologica. (1984) [Pubmed]
  26. Trace enrichment of (fluoro)quinolone antibiotics in surface waters by solid-phase extraction and their determination by liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection. Turiel, E., Bordin, G., Rodríguez, A.R. Journal of chromatography. A. (2003) [Pubmed]
  27. Differentiation of cartilage on three substrata under the influence of an aggregate of morphogenetic protein and other bone tissue noncollagenous proteins (BMP/iNCP). Takahashi, S., Urist, M.R. Clin. Orthop. Relat. Res. (1986) [Pubmed]
  28. High-dose exposure to systemic phosmet insecticide modifies the phosphatidylinositol anchor on the prion protein: the origins of new variant transmissible spongiform encephalopathies? Purdey, M. Med. Hypotheses (1998) [Pubmed]
  29. Studies on the putative interactions between the organophosphorus insecticide Phosmet and recombinant mouse PrP and its implication in the BSE epidemic. Shaw, I., Berry, C., Lane, E., Fitzmaurice, P., Clarke, D., Holden, A. Vet. Res. Commun. (2002) [Pubmed]
  30. Determination of phosmet by high-performance liquid chromatography. Dulák, K., Jonás, F. J. Chromatogr. (1987) [Pubmed]
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