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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Ultrafast three-dimensional contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography and imaging in the diagnosis of partial anomalous pulmonary venous drainage.

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of our study was to evaluate patients with suspected anomalous pulmonary veins (APVs) and atrial septal defects (ASDs) using fast cine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and ultrafast three-dimensional magnetic resonance angiography (MRA). BACKGROUND: Precise anatomic definition of anomalous pulmonary and systemic veins, and the atrial septum are prerequisites for surgical correction of ASDs. Cardiac catheterization and transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) are currently used to diagnose APVs, but did not provide complete information in our patients. METHODS: Twenty consecutive patients with suspected APVs were studied by MRA after inconclusive assessment by catheterization, TEE or both. The MRI images were acquired with a fast cine sequence and a novel ultrafast three-dimensional sequence before and after contrast injection. RESULTS: Partial anomalous pulmonary venous drainage was demonstrated in 16 of 20 patients and was excluded in four patients. Magnetic resonance imaging correctly diagnosed APVs and ASDs in all patients (100%) who underwent surgery. For the diagnosis of APVs, the MRI and catheterization results agreed in 74% of patients and the MRI and TEE agreed in 75% of patients. For ASDs, MRI agreed with catheterization and TEE in 53% and 83% of patients, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Fast cine MRI with three-dimensional contrast-enhanced MRA provides rapid and comprehensive anatomic definition of APVs and ASDs in patients with adult congenital heart disease in a single examination.[1]


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