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MeSH Review

Pulmonary Veins

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Disease relevance of Pulmonary Veins


High impact information on Pulmonary Veins


Chemical compound and disease context of Pulmonary Veins


Biological context of Pulmonary Veins


Anatomical context of Pulmonary Veins

  • The common pulmonary vein, which connected the pulmonary veins to a systemic vein in the abdomen, was seen lying parallel and anterior to the descending aorta and to the left of the inferior vena cava [21].
  • Fatemapping studies using a Pitx2 cre recombinase knock-in allele showed that daughters of Pitx2-expressing cells populated the right and left ventricles, atrioventricular cushions and valves and pulmonary veins [16].
  • Tumor emboli trapped in the vessels of lungs and lymph nodes and single tumor cells observed in the pulmonary vein implied that FGF-1-overexpressing MCF-7 cells are deficient in their ability to extravasate [22].
  • We conclude that remodeling of the pulmonary vasculature in PPH routinely includes thickening of the arterial adventitia and frequently also includes changes in the walls of the pulmonary veins [23].
  • The CI (267 +/- 54 ms vs. 217 +/- 55 ms, p < 0.05), AF1 (194 +/- 36 ms vs. 153 +/- 37 ms, p < 0.05) and PI (0.49 +/- 0.13 vs. 0.37 +/- 0.11, p < 0.01) of the AF episodes from the superior vena cava (SVC) were significantly longer and greater than those of AF episodes from pulmonary veins (PVs) [24].

Associations of Pulmonary Veins with chemical compounds


Gene context of Pulmonary Veins

  • At the venous pole, BMP2, -5, and -7 mRNA are expressed in the distal myocardial border of the caval vein, while BMP2, -5, -6, and -7 mRNA are expressed in the distal myocardium around the pulmonary vein [28].
  • In the pulmonary vein plasma levels of activated factor VII decreased following heparin administration (P < 0.001) in the majority of patients which was coincidental to an increase (P < 0.001) in tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) [29].
  • Lungs of eNOS-deficient mice also exhibited a striking paucity of distal arteriolar branches and extensive regions of capillary hypoperfusion, together with misalignment of pulmonary veins, which represent the characteristic features of alveolar capillary dysplasia [30].
  • However, in isolated human pulmonary veins two receptors are present, CysLT1 and CysLT2 (Figure 1) [31].
  • At 2 months post-injection, lacZ expression persisted only in atrial tissues, pulmonary veins, and great vessels [32].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Pulmonary Veins


  1. Lung injury edema in dogs. Influence of sympathetic ablation. Dauber, I.M., Weil, J.V. J. Clin. Invest. (1983) [Pubmed]
  2. Ultrastructural changes in intraacinar pulmonary veins. Relationship to 3-methylindole-induced acute pulmonary edema and pulmonary arterial changes in cattle. Atwal, O.S., Persofsky, M.S. Am. J. Pathol. (1984) [Pubmed]
  3. Persistent left superior vena cava and right superior vena cava drainage into the left atrium without arterial hypoxemia. Schick, E.C., Lekakis, J., Rothendler, J.A., Ryan, T.J. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. (1985) [Pubmed]
  4. Isolated pulmonary vein stenosis in complex congenital heart disease, simulating cor triatriatum by cardiac catheterization and transoesophageal echocardiography. Cromme-Dijkhuis, A.H., Bogers, A.J., Hess, J. Eur. Heart J. (1995) [Pubmed]
  5. Decreased arterial wall prostaglandin production in neonatal calves with severe chronic pulmonary hypertension. Badesch, D.B., Orton, E.C., Zapp, L.M., Westcott, J.Y., Hester, J., Voelkel, N.F., Stenmark, K.R. Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  6. Clearance of atrial natriuretic factor by lung, liver, and kidney in human subjects and the dog. Hollister, A.S., Rodeheffer, R.J., White, F.J., Potts, J.R., Imada, T., Inagami, T. J. Clin. Invest. (1989) [Pubmed]
  7. Effects of the 15-methyl analogs of prostaglandins E2 and F2alpha on the pulmonary circulation in the intact dog. Kadowitz, P.J., Joiner, P.D., Matthews, C.S., Hyman, A.L. J. Clin. Invest. (1975) [Pubmed]
  8. Oxytocin and its receptors are synthesized in the rat vasculature. Jankowski, M., Wang, D., Hajjar, F., Mukaddam-Daher, S., McCann, S.M., Gutkowska, J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2000) [Pubmed]
  9. Quantitative analysis of the morphology of secundum-type atrial septal defects and their dynamic change using transesophageal three-dimensional echocardiography. Franke, A., Kühl, H.P., Rulands, D., Jansen, C., Erena, C., Grabitz, R.G., Däbritz, S., Messmer, B.J., Flachskampf, F.A., Hanrath, P. Circulation (1997) [Pubmed]
  10. Selective stimulation of parasympathetic nerve fibers to the human sinoatrial node. Carlson, M.D., Geha, A.S., Hsu, J., Martin, P.J., Levy, M.N., Jacobs, G., Waldo, A.L. Circulation (1992) [Pubmed]
  11. Iodine-123-HIPDM lung imaging in pulmonary vein-banded pulmonary hypertension. Shih, W.J., Cottrill, C.M., Coupal, J.J., O'Connor, W., Kung, H.F., Ryo, U.Y. J. Nucl. Med. (1990) [Pubmed]
  12. Pharmacological studies of sensitized canine pulmonary blood vessels. Kong, S.K., Stephens, N.L. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. (1981) [Pubmed]
  13. Electrical connections between left superior pulmonary vein, left atrium, and ligament of Marshall: implications for mechanisms of atrial fibrillation. Tan, A.Y., Chou, C.C., Zhou, S., Nihei, M., Hwang, C., Peter, C.T., Fishbein, M.C., Chen, P.S. Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  14. Grand round series: hypoglycemia and unilateral pulmonary edema in a newborn. Kerkering, K.W., Robertson, L.W., Kodroff, M.B., Mueller, D.G., Kirkpatrick, B.V. Pediatrics (1980) [Pubmed]
  15. Impact of amiodarone on electrophysiologic properties of pulmonary veins in patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation. Rostock, T., Servatius, H., Risius, T., Ventura, R., Weiss, C., Meinertz, T., Willems, S. J. Cardiovasc. Electrophysiol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  16. Pitx2c patterns anterior myocardium and aortic arch vessels and is required for local cell movement into atrioventricular cushions. Liu, C., Liu, W., Palie, J., Lu, M.F., Brown, N.A., Martin, J.F. Development (2002) [Pubmed]
  17. The response to distension of the pulmonary vein-left atrial junctions in anaesthetized dogs after section of the rostral medulla. Burkhart, S.M., Ledsome, J.R. J. Physiol. (Lond.) (1977) [Pubmed]
  18. Atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) and ANF receptor C gene expression and localization in the respiratory system: effects induced by hypoxia and hemodynamic overload. Di Nardo, P., Minieri, M., Sampaolesi, M., Carbone, A., Loreni, F., Samuel, J.L., Lauro, R. Endocrinology (1996) [Pubmed]
  19. Time-dependent enhancement of xylazine-induced, alpha-2 adrenoceptor-mediated vasoconstriction in isolated and perfused canine pulmonary veins. Haniuda, M., Itoh, N., Chiba, S. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. (1989) [Pubmed]
  20. 5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) mediates potent relaxation in the sheep isolated pulmonary vein via activation of 5-HT4 receptors. Cocks, T.M., Arnold, P.J. Br. J. Pharmacol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  21. Evaluation of infradiaphragmatic total anomalous pulmonary venous connection with two-dimensional echocardiography. Snider, A.R., Silverman, N.H., Turley, K., Ebert, P.A. Circulation (1982) [Pubmed]
  22. Overexpression of fibroblast growth factor 1 in MCF-7 breast cancer cells facilitates tumor cell dissemination but does not support the development of macrometastases in the lungs or lymph nodes. Zhang, L., Kharbanda, S., McLeskey, S.W., Kern, F.G. Cancer Res. (1999) [Pubmed]
  23. Pulmonary artery adventitial changes and venous involvement in primary pulmonary hypertension. Chazova, I., Loyd, J.E., Zhdanov, V.S., Newman, J.H., Belenkov, Y., Meyrick, B. Am. J. Pathol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  24. Electrophysiologic characteristics in initiation of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation from a focal area. Lu, T.M., Tai, C.T., Hsieh, M.H., Tsai, C.F., Lin, Y.K., Yu, W.C., Tsao, H.M., Lee, S.H., Ding, Y.A., Chang, M.S., Chen, S.A. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  25. Relation of pulmonary vein to mitral flow velocities by transesophageal Doppler echocardiography. Effect of different loading conditions. Nishimura, R.A., Abel, M.D., Hatle, L.K., Tajik, A.J. Circulation (1990) [Pubmed]
  26. Endothelium-derived nitric oxide plays a larger role in pulmonary veins than in arteries of newborn lambs. Gao, Y., Zhou, H., Raj, J.U. Circ. Res. (1995) [Pubmed]
  27. Effects of thyroid hormone on the arrhythmogenic activity of pulmonary vein cardiomyocytes. Chen, Y.C., Chen, S.A., Chen, Y.J., Chang, M.S., Chan, P., Lin, C.I. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  28. Dynamic patterns of expression of BMP isoforms 2, 4, 5, 6, and 7 during chicken heart development. Somi, S., Buffing, A.A., Moorman, A.F., Van Den Hoff, M.J. The anatomical record. Part A, Discoveries in molecular, cellular, and evolutionary biology. (2004) [Pubmed]
  29. Haemostatic changes in the pulmonary blood during cardiopulmonary bypass. Cardigan, R.A., Hamilton-Davies, C., McDonald, S., Purdy, G., Mackie, I.J., Webb, A.R., Machin, S.J. Blood Coagul. Fibrinolysis (1996) [Pubmed]
  30. Defective lung vascular development and fatal respiratory distress in endothelial NO synthase-deficient mice: a model of alveolar capillary dysplasia? Han, R.N., Babaei, S., Robb, M., Lee, T., Ridsdale, R., Ackerley, C., Post, M., Stewart, D.J. Circ. Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  31. Functional studies of leukotriene receptors in vascular tissues. Walch, L., Norel, X., Gascard, J.P., Brink, C. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. (2000) [Pubmed]
  32. Efficient transmural cardiac gene transfer by intrapericardial injection in neonatal mice. Zhang, J.C., Woo, Y.J., Chen, J.A., Swain, J.L., Sweeney, H.L. J. Mol. Cell. Cardiol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  33. Pulmonary endothelial pavement patterns. Kibria, G., Heath, D., Smith, P., Biggar, R. Thorax (1980) [Pubmed]
  34. Effects of ventilation and nonventilation on pulmonary venous blood gases and markers of lung hypoxia in humans undergoing total cardiopulmonary bypass. Loer, S.A., Kalweit, G., Tarnow, J. Crit. Care Med. (2000) [Pubmed]
  35. Intraoperative stents to rehabilitate severely stenotic pulmonary vessels. Ungerleider, R.M., Johnston, T.A., O'Laughlin, M.P., Jaggers, J.J., Gaskin, P.R. Ann. Thorac. Surg. (2001) [Pubmed]
  36. "Dormant" pulmonary vein conduction revealed by adenosine after ostial radiofrequency catheter ablation. Arentz, T., Macle, L., Kalusche, D., Hocini, M., Jais, P., Shah, D., Haissaguerre, M. J. Cardiovasc. Electrophysiol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  37. Pulmonary vein injury through repetitive clip friction: an unusual cause of hemothorax. Sîrbu, H., Herse, B., Busch, T., Dalichau, H. Ann. Thorac. Surg. (1998) [Pubmed]
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