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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Surfactant enhanced recovery of tetrachloroethylene from a porous medium containing low permeability lenses. 1. Experimental studies.

A matrix of batch, column and two-dimensional (2-D) box experiments was conducted to investigate the coupled effects of rate-limited solubilization and layering on the entrapment and subsequent recovery of a representative dense NAPL, tetrachloroethylene (PCE), during surfactant flushing. Batch experiments were performed to determine the equilibrium solubilization capacity of the surfactant, polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan monooleate (Tween 80), and to measure fluid viscosity, density and interfacial tension. Results of one-dimensional column studies indicated that micellar solubilization of residual PCE was rate-limited at Darcy velocities ranging from 0.8 to 8.2 cm/h and during periods of flow interruption. Effluent concentration data were used to develop effective mass transfer coefficient (Ke) expressions that were dependent upon the Darcy velocity and duration of flow interruption. To simulate subsurface heterogeneity, 2-D boxes were packed with layers of F-70 Ottawa sand and Wurtsmith aquifer material within 20-30 mesh Ottawa sand. A 4% Tween 80 solution was then flushed through PCE-contaminated boxes at several flow velocities, with periods of flow interruption. Effluent concentration data and visual observations indicated that both rate-limited solubilization and pooling of PCE above the fine layers reduced PCE recovery to levels below those anticipated from batch and column measurements. These experimental results demonstrate the potential impact of both mass transfer limitations and subsurface layering on the recovery of PCE during surfactant enhanced aquifer remediation.[1]


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