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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review


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Disease relevance of Viscosity

  • We studied the distribution of cholesterol among the plasma lipoproteins, as well as the relation between total cholesterol and plasma albumin concentration, oncotic pressure, and viscosity in 20 consecutive adult patients with uncomplicated nephrotic syndrome [1].
  • Ascorbate when combined with copper rapidly reduces the viscosity of DNA solutions and has exhibited some carcinostatic effects on transplanted sarcoma 180 tumours in mice [2].
  • The increased plasma viscosity in patients with hypergammaglobulinemias may therefore contribute to the inappropriate EPO production, which is a major reason for the anemia developing in these patients [3].
  • METHODS: In 31 asymptomatic volunteers and 36 patients with endoscopic reflux esophagitis, in basal and parafilm chewing-stimulated saliva, its volume, pH, bicarbonate, epidermal growth factor, transforming growth factor alpha, prostaglandin E2, mucin, protein, and viscosity were investigated [4].
  • Conventional risk factors (e.g., triglycerides, obesity, and cholesterol levels) were positively related to WBV or plasma viscosity [5].

High impact information on Viscosity

  • The inhibitor activity is nondialyzable, sensitive to heat and to trypsin and has a Stoke's radius of 40 A. This fraction stops nuclei-induced actin polymerization in 0.4 mM MgCl2 and reduces the viscosity of F actin to that of G actin, which suggests depolymerization of the filaments [6].
  • Villin is also effective in reducing the viscosity of F-actin when it is added to a fuly polymerized actin sample [7].
  • Here we use very small germanium crystals as a new type of nanomechanical stressor to demonstrate a surprising mechanical behaviour of the thin layer of silicon in SOI substrates, and to show that there is a large local reduction in the viscosity of the oxide on which the silicon layer rests [8].
  • HCO3- and pH affect mucin viscosity and bacterial binding [9].
  • In vitro alpha-actinin binds to F-actin and will crosslink actin filaments, increasing the viscosity of F-actin solutions [10].

Chemical compound and disease context of Viscosity


Biological context of Viscosity


Anatomical context of Viscosity


Associations of Viscosity with chemical compounds

  • A significant inverse correlation was found between the total plasma cholesterol concentration and both the plasma albumin concentration (r = -0.528) and the plasma oncotic pressure (r = -0.674), but not the plasma viscosity (r = +0.319) [1].
  • The theory and experiment suggest that the dominant factor in markedly reducing the rate of conformational changes in myoglobin at low temperatures (less than 200 K) is the very high viscosity (greater than 10(7) centipoise) of the glycerol-water solvent [25].
  • Among subjects with glucose intolerance, levels of PAI-1 and tPA antigen in men and women (P<.01 for trend) and vWF antigen in men (P<.05 for trend) increased significantly across insulin quintiles, but levels of factor VII antigen, fibrinogen, and plasma viscosity did not increase [26].
  • Further incubation of diamide-incubated cells in 4 mM dithiothreitol reversed the membrane polypeptide aggregates, normalized micropipette deformability, decreased cell viscosity, prolonged in vivi survival, and decreased splenic sequestration [27].
  • Increasing duodenal juice viscosity by polyethlene glycol also caused a reduction particularly of lipase activity [28].

Gene context of Viscosity

  • In this study, we demonstrate using viscosity, sedimentation, and actin assembly rate assays that yeast cofilin (16 kD) possesses all of these properties [29].
  • TRPV4 channel is involved in the coupling of fluid viscosity changes to epithelial ciliary activity [30].
  • Correlations were observed between the SF C2C neoepitope level and the Health Assessment Questionnaire score, C-reactive protein level, plasma viscosity, synovitis score, and SF TNFalpha and MMP-1 levels [31].
  • Further characterization of MMP-3 establishes that the acid pH optimum for cartilage aggrecan is not due to substrate denaturation since the same optimum is found by viscosity assay, by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis assay of G1 domain, and by digestion of aggrecan in fresh cartilage fragments in vitro [32].
  • CONCLUSIONS: Increased plasma IL-6, CRP, and plasma viscosity support the case for the existence of an inflammatory state among "typical" populations with chronic AF [33].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Viscosity




  1. The hyperlipidemia of the nephrotic syndrome. Relation to plasma albumin concentration, oncotic pressure, and viscosity. Appel, G.B., Blum, C.B., Chien, S., Kunis, C.L., Appel, A.S. N. Engl. J. Med. (1985) [Pubmed]
  2. Vitamin C preferential toxicity for malignant melanoma cells. Bram, S., Froussard, P., Guichard, M., Jasmin, C., Augery, Y., Sinoussi-Barre, F., Wray, W. Nature (1980) [Pubmed]
  3. Increased plasma viscosity as a reason for inappropriate erythropoietin formation. Singh, A., Eckardt, K.U., Zimmermann, A., Götz, K.H., Hamann, M., Ratcliffe, P.J., Kurtz, A., Reinhart, W.H. J. Clin. Invest. (1993) [Pubmed]
  4. Enhancement of salivary esophagoprotection: rationale for a physiological approach to gastroesophageal reflux disease. Sarosiek, J., Scheurich, C.J., Marcinkiewicz, M., McCallum, R.W. Gastroenterology (1996) [Pubmed]
  5. Relation of blood viscosity to demographic and physiologic variables and to cardiovascular risk factors in apparently normal adults. de Simone, G., Devereux, R.B., Chien, S., Alderman, M.H., Atlas, S.A., Laragh, J.H. Circulation (1990) [Pubmed]
  6. A platelet inhibitor protein with cytochalasin-like activity against actin polymerization in vitro. Grumet, M., Lin, S. Cell (1980) [Pubmed]
  7. Regulation of actin polymerization by villin, a 95,000 dalton cytoskeletal component of intestinal brush borders. Craig, S.W., Powell, L.D. Cell (1980) [Pubmed]
  8. Nanomechanics: response of a strained semiconductor structure. Liu, F., Rugheimer, P., Mateeva, E., Savage, D.E., Lagally, M.G. Nature (2002) [Pubmed]
  9. Aberrant CFTR-dependent HCO3- transport in mutations associated with cystic fibrosis. Choi, J.Y., Muallem, D., Kiselyov, K., Lee, M.G., Thomas, P.J., Muallem, S. Nature (2001) [Pubmed]
  10. Requirement of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate for alpha-actinin function. Fukami, K., Furuhashi, K., Inagaki, M., Endo, T., Hatano, S., Takenawa, T. Nature (1992) [Pubmed]
  11. Transcription- and translation-dependent changes in membrane dynamics in bacteria: testing the transertion model for domain formation. Binenbaum, Z., Parola, A.H., Zaritsky, A., Fishov, I. Mol. Microbiol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  12. Trehalose prevents myoglobin collapse and preserves its internal mobility. Sastry, G.M., Agmon, N. Biochemistry (1997) [Pubmed]
  13. Catalytic cycle of the phosphatidylcholine-preferring phospholipase C from Bacillus cereus. Solvent viscosity, deuterium isotope effects, and proton inventory studies. Martin, S.F., Hergenrother, P.J. Biochemistry (1999) [Pubmed]
  14. Use of slime dispersants to promote antibiotic penetration through the extracellular polysaccharide of mucoid Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Gordon, C.A., Hodges, N.A., Marriott, C. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1991) [Pubmed]
  15. Blood viscosity and haemostasis in the nephrotic syndrome. McGinley, E., Lowe, G.D., Boulton-Jones, M., Forbes, C.D., Prentice, C.R. Thromb. Haemost. (1983) [Pubmed]
  16. The amiloride-inhibitable Na+ conductance is reduced by the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator in normal but not in cystic fibrosis airways. Mall, M., Bleich, M., Greger, R., Schreiber, R., Kunzelmann, K. J. Clin. Invest. (1998) [Pubmed]
  17. Blood viscosity and elevated carotid intima-media thickness in men and women: the Edinburgh Artery Study. Lee, A.J., Mowbray, P.I., Lowe, G.D., Rumley, A., Fowkes, F.G., Allan, P.L. Circulation (1998) [Pubmed]
  18. beta-Adrenergic receptor agonists increase phospholipid methylation, membrane fluidity, and beta-adrenergic receptor-adenylate cyclase coupling. Hirata, F., Strittmatter, W.J., Axelrod, J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1979) [Pubmed]
  19. Effects of dietary essential fatty acids on murine mammary gland development. Knazek, R.A., Liu, S.C. Cancer Res. (1981) [Pubmed]
  20. Ranking of laboratory tests by consensus analysis. Bull, B.S., Levy, W.C., Westengard, J.C., Farr, M., Smith, P.F., Apperley, J.F., Bacon, P.A., Stuart, J. Lancet (1986) [Pubmed]
  21. Sputum viscosity and long-term ipratropium bromide nebuliser therapy. Crompton, G.K. Lancet (1982) [Pubmed]
  22. Increased biliary group II phospholipase A2 and altered gallbladder bile in patients with multiple cholesterol stones. Shoda, J., Ueda, T., Ikegami, T., Matsuzaki, Y., Satoh, S., Kano, M., Matsuura, K., Tanaka, N. Gastroenterology (1997) [Pubmed]
  23. Human esophageal secretion: mucosal response to luminal acid and pepsin. Namiot, Z., Sarosiek, J., Rourk, R.M., Hetzel, D.P., McCallum, R.W. Gastroenterology (1994) [Pubmed]
  24. Modification of adenylate cyclase activity in LM cells by manipulation of the membrane phospholipid composition in vivo. Engelhard, V.H., Esko, J.D., Storm, D.R., Glaser, M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1976) [Pubmed]
  25. The role of solvent viscosity in the dynamics of protein conformational changes. Ansari, A., Jones, C.M., Henry, E.R., Hofrichter, J., Eaton, W.A. Science (1992) [Pubmed]
  26. Hyperinsulinemia, hyperglycemia, and impaired hemostasis: the Framingham Offspring Study. Meigs, J.B., Mittleman, M.A., Nathan, D.M., Tofler, G.H., Singer, D.E., Murphy-Sheehy, P.M., Lipinska, I., D'Agostino, R.B., Wilson, P.W. JAMA (2000) [Pubmed]
  27. Decreased survival in vivo of diamide-incubated dog erythrocytes. A model of oxidant-induced hemolysis. Johnson, G.J., Allen, D.W., Flynn, T.P., Finkel, B., White, J.G. J. Clin. Invest. (1980) [Pubmed]
  28. Effect of dietary fiber on pancreatic enzyme activity in vitro. Isaksson, G., Lundquist, I., Ihse, I. Gastroenterology (1982) [Pubmed]
  29. Cofilin is an essential component of the yeast cortical cytoskeleton. Moon, A.L., Janmey, P.A., Louie, K.A., Drubin, D.G. J. Cell Biol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  30. TRPV4 channel is involved in the coupling of fluid viscosity changes to epithelial ciliary activity. Andrade, Y.N., Fernandes, J., Vázquez, E., Fernández-Fernández, J.M., Arniges, M., Sánchez, T.M., Villalón, M., Valverde, M.A. J. Cell Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  31. Turnover of type II collagen and aggrecan in cartilage matrix at the onset of inflammatory arthritis in humans: relationship to mediators of systemic and local inflammation. Fraser, A., Fearon, U., Billinghurst, R.C., Ionescu, M., Reece, R., Barwick, T., Emery, P., Poole, A.R., Veale, D.J. Arthritis Rheum. (2003) [Pubmed]
  32. Matrix metalloproteinase-3 (stromelysin-1). Identification as the cartilage acid metalloprotease and effect of pH on catalytic properties and calcium affinity. Wilhelm, S.M., Shao, Z.H., Housley, T.J., Seperack, P.K., Baumann, A.P., Gunja-Smith, Z., Woessner, J.F. J. Biol. Chem. (1993) [Pubmed]
  33. Relationship of interleukin-6 and C-reactive protein to the prothrombotic state in chronic atrial fibrillation. Conway, D.S., Buggins, P., Hughes, E., Lip, G.Y. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  34. Effect of hydroxypropylmethylcellulose on gastrointestinal transit and luminal viscosity in dogs. Reppas, C., Meyer, J.H., Sirois, P.J., Dressman, J.B. Gastroenterology (1991) [Pubmed]
  35. Hyperviscosity syndrome in a hypercholesterolemic patient with primary biliary cirrhosis. Rosenson, R.S., Baker, A.L., Chow, M.J., Hay, R.V. Gastroenterology (1990) [Pubmed]
  36. Role of plasma viscosity in platelet adhesion. van Breugel, H.F., de Groot, P.G., Heethaar, R.M., Sixma, J.J. Blood (1992) [Pubmed]
  37. The interaction of plant alkaloids with DNA. II. Berberinium chloride. Davidson, M.W., Lopp, I., Alexander, S., Wilson, W.D. Nucleic Acids Res. (1977) [Pubmed]
  38. Probing stepwise complexation in phenylazomethine dendrimers by a metallo-porphyrin core. Imaoka, T., Tanaka, R., Arimoto, S., Sakai, M., Fujii, M., Yamamoto, K. J. Am. Chem. Soc. (2005) [Pubmed]
  39. Effect of high concentrations of sucrose on the enzymatic activity of alpha-chymotrypsin. Todorova, R., Nedev, K. IUBMB Life (2000) [Pubmed]
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