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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Arkadia enhances nodal-related signalling to induce mesendoderm.

Nodal-related members of the transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta family regulate the induction of mesoderm, endoderm, and mesendoderm, a tissue specific to the Spemann organizer. How these different tissues form in response to the same signalling molecules is not completely understood. It has been suggested that concentration-dependent effects, mediated by extracellular cofactors and antagonists, are responsible for the differences. Here we show that the nuclear protein Arkadia specifically potentiates the mesendoderm-inducing activity of a subset of TGF-beta family members. The combined activities of Arkadia and Xenopus nodal-related-1 are sufficient to induce mesendoderm and suppress mesoderm. Arkadia dorsalizes ventral tissues, resulting in the induction of organizer-specific gene expression. Blocking nodal signalling extracellularly inhibits these effects. Arkadia influences nodal activity when co-expressed and can function in cells adjacent to those producing the nodal signal. Our findings, together with the observation that Arkadia mutant mice lack a node and node-derived mesendoderm, identify Arkadia as an essential modulator of the nodal signalling cascade that leads to induction of Spemann's organizer.[1]


  1. Arkadia enhances nodal-related signalling to induce mesendoderm. Niederländer, C., Walsh, J.J., Episkopou, V., Jones, C.M. Nature (2001) [Pubmed]
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