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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review


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Disease relevance of Endoderm

  • When embryonal carcinoma cells are induced to differentiate by treatment with retinoic acid, diffusion constants of C16dil are reduced to levels typical of endoderm [1].
  • The amount of the heterotrimeric G protein subunit G alpha i2 decreases after the induction of F9 teratocarcinoma cells to become primitive endoderm in the presence of retinoic acid (RA) [2].
  • ISO stimulation of endoderm formation of F9 stem cells expressing the chimeric receptor was blocked by pertussis toxin and by oligodeoxynucleotide antisense to Galphao, Galphat2, and Gbeta2 [3].
  • Stra13 is expressed in embryonic as well as adult tissues derived from neuroectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm and has been associated with response to hypoxia, suggesting a complex role for this protein and the highly related Sharp1/Dec2 protein in homeostatic regulation [4].
  • In cells stimulated to differentiate into parietal endoderm by treatment with retinoic acid, the beta-interferon promoter responds to both inducers, but only Sendai virus can activate the transcription factor NF-kappa B previously thought to be essential for beta-interferon induction [5].

Psychiatry related information on Endoderm


High impact information on Endoderm

  • During embryogenesis, maternal determinants act in concert with TGF-beta signals to form mesoderm and endoderm [7].
  • These experiments provide evidence that Ptf1a expression is specifically connected to the acquisition of pancreatic fate by undifferentiated foregut endoderm [8].
  • Pancreas development begins with the formation of buds at specific sites in the embryonic foregut endoderm [8].
  • Here we report that the gene Amn encodes a novel type I transmembrane protein that is expressed exclusively in the extra-embryonic visceral endoderm layer during gastrulation [9].
  • The zebrafish EGF-CFC gene one-eyed pinhead (oep) is required zygotically for the formation of the ventral neuroectoderm, endoderm, and prechordal plate [10].

Chemical compound and disease context of Endoderm


Biological context of Endoderm


Anatomical context of Endoderm

  • The endoderm of the visceral yolk sac was shown to be synthesizing primarily type I collagen, while the mesoderm layer of this membrane synthesized both type I and IV collagens [21].
  • HNF-3 beta, a transcription factor of the winged-helix family, is expressed in embryonic and adult endoderm and also in midline cells of the node, notochord, and floor plate in mouse embryos [22].
  • In female eutherian mammals preferential inactivation of the paternally derived X chromosome (XP) takes place in certain extra-embryonic tissues such as mouse yolk-sac endoderm, chorionic ectoderm and trophoblast and has been demonstrated both biochemically and cytologically [23].
  • The expression of cerberus during gastrulation is activated by earlier nodal-related signals in endoderm and by Spemann-organizer factors that repress signalling by BMP and Wnt [24].
  • In the mouse, Fgf8 is also expressed in endoderm as well as in other germ layers in the periotic placode region [25].

Associations of Endoderm with chemical compounds

  • The cell type generated by retinoic acid and dibutyryl cAMP treatment is therefore indistinguishable from definitive parietal endoderm [26].
  • We present evidence that Pax8 is necessary for providing cues for the differentiation of competent endoderm primordia into thyroxin-producing follicular cells [27].
  • The secretion of plasminogen activator and type IV collagen, and low levels of alkaline phosphatase and lactate dehydrogenase, have been previously shown to be properties of parietal endoderm, an extraembryonic cell which is generated early in mouse embryonesis [26].
  • On exposure to retinoic acid the ECC line F9 (ref. 13) differentiates into cells which have the characteristics of parietal endoderm [28].
  • Stimulation of mouse F9 clones expressing the chimera (beta2AR-Rfz1) with the beta-adrenergic agonist isoproterenol stimulated stabilization of beta-catenin, activation of a beta-catenin-sensitive promoter, and formation of primitive endoderm [29].

Gene context of Endoderm

  • Moreover, Nodal signals from the epiblast also pattern the visceral endoderm by activating the Smad2-dependent pathway required for specification of anterior identity in overlying epiblast cells [30].
  • Functional intertwining of Dpp and EGFR signaling during Drosophila endoderm induction [31].
  • Moreover, introducing a human Smad3 cDNA into the mouse Smad2 locus similarly rescues anterior-posterior patterning and definitive endoderm formation and results in adult viability [32].
  • These results indicate that Smad4 is initially required for the differentiation of the visceral endoderm and that the gastrulation defect in the epiblast is secondary and non-cell autonomous [33].
  • Expression of Cdx1 increased from 13.5 to 14.5 pc during the endoderm/epithelial transition with predominately distal expression [34].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Endoderm


  1. Lipid composition and lateral diffusion in plasma membranes of teratocarcinoma-derived cell lines. Searls, D.B., Edidin, M. Cell (1981) [Pubmed]
  2. Regulation of the differentiation of teratocarcinoma cells into primitive endoderm by G alpha i2. Watkins, D.C., Johnson, G.L., Malbon, C.C. Science (1992) [Pubmed]
  3. Activation of a frizzled-2/beta-adrenergic receptor chimera promotes Wnt signaling and differentiation of mouse F9 teratocarcinoma cells via Galphao and Galphat. Liu, X., Liu, T., Slusarski, D.C., Yang-Snyder, J., Malbon, C.C., Moon, R.T., Wang, H. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1999) [Pubmed]
  4. Stra13 homodimers repress transcription through class B E-box elements. St-Pierre, B., Flock, G., Zacksenhaus, E., Egan, S.E. J. Biol. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  5. NF-kappa B-independent activation of beta-interferon expression in mouse F9 embryonal carcinoma cells. Ellis, M.J., Goodbourn, S. Nucleic Acids Res. (1994) [Pubmed]
  6. Reprogramming of early embryonic blastomeres into endodermal progenitors by a Caenorhabditis elegans GATA factor. Zhu, J., Fukushige, T., McGhee, J.D., Rothman, J.H. Genes Dev. (1998) [Pubmed]
  7. Germ-layer specification and control of cell growth by Ectodermin, a Smad4 ubiquitin ligase. Dupont, S., Zacchigna, L., Cordenonsi, M., Soligo, S., Adorno, M., Rugge, M., Piccolo, S. Cell (2005) [Pubmed]
  8. The role of the transcriptional regulator Ptf1a in converting intestinal to pancreatic progenitors. Kawaguchi, Y., Cooper, B., Gannon, M., Ray, M., MacDonald, R.J., Wright, C.V. Nat. Genet. (2002) [Pubmed]
  9. The amnionless gene, essential for mouse gastrulation, encodes a visceral-endoderm-specific protein with an extracellular cysteine-rich domain. Kalantry, S., Manning, S., Haub, O., Tomihara-Newberger, C., Lee, H.G., Fangman, J., Disteche, C.M., Manova, K., Lacy, E. Nat. Genet. (2001) [Pubmed]
  10. The EGF-CFC protein one-eyed pinhead is essential for nodal signaling. Gritsman, K., Zhang, J., Cheng, S., Heckscher, E., Talbot, W.S., Schier, A.F. Cell (1999) [Pubmed]
  11. RXRalpha-null F9 embryonal carcinoma cells are resistant to the differentiation, anti-proliferative and apoptotic effects of retinoids. Clifford, J., Chiba, H., Sobieszczuk, D., Metzger, D., Chambon, P. EMBO J. (1996) [Pubmed]
  12. c-myc regulation during retinoic acid-induced differentiation of F9 cells is posttranscriptional and associated with growth arrest. Dean, M., Levine, R.A., Campisi, J. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  13. Targeted disruption of retinoic acid receptor alpha (RAR alpha) and RAR gamma results in receptor-specific alterations in retinoic acid-mediated differentiation and retinoic acid metabolism. Boylan, J.F., Lufkin, T., Achkar, C.C., Taneja, R., Chambon, P., Gudas, L.J. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  14. A role for p21 (WAF1) in the cAMP-dependent differentiation of F9 teratocarcinoma cells into parietal endoderm. Drdová, B., Vachtenheim, J. Exp. Cell Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  15. A new glycoprotein antigen common to teratocarcinoma, visceral endoderm, and renal tubular brush border. Ozawa, M., Yonezawa, S., Sato, E., Muramatsu, T. Dev. Biol. (1982) [Pubmed]
  16. Plasminogen activator in early embryogenesis: enzyme production by trophoblast and parietal endoderm. Strickland, S., Reich, E., Sherman, M.I. Cell (1976) [Pubmed]
  17. HNF-3 beta is essential for node and notochord formation in mouse development. Ang, S.L., Rossant, J. Cell (1994) [Pubmed]
  18. LEF-1, a nuclear factor coordinating signaling inputs from wingless and decapentaplegic. Riese, J., Yu, X., Munnerlyn, A., Eresh, S., Hsu, S.C., Grosschedl, R., Bienz, M. Cell (1997) [Pubmed]
  19. Xsox17alpha and -beta mediate endoderm formation in Xenopus. Hudson, C., Clements, D., Friday, R.V., Stott, D., Woodland, H.R. Cell (1997) [Pubmed]
  20. Differences in the DNA of the inactive X chromosomes of fetal and extraembryonic tissues of mice. Kratzer, P.G., Chapman, V.M., Lambert, H., Evans, R.E., Liskay, R.M. Cell (1983) [Pubmed]
  21. The localization and synthesis of some collagen types in developing mouse embryos. Adamson, E.D., Ayers, S.E. Cell (1979) [Pubmed]
  22. The winged-helix transcription factor HNF-3 beta is required for notochord development in the mouse embryo. Weinstein, D.C., Ruiz i Altaba, A., Chen, W.S., Hoodless, P., Prezioso, V.R., Jessell, T.M., Darnell, J.E. Cell (1994) [Pubmed]
  23. Interaction between the Xce locus and imprinting of the paternal X chromosome in mouse yolk-sac endoderm. Rastan, S., Cattanach, B.M. Nature (1983) [Pubmed]
  24. The head inducer Cerberus is a multifunctional antagonist of Nodal, BMP and Wnt signals. Piccolo, S., Agius, E., Leyns, L., Bhattacharyya, S., Grunz, H., Bouwmeester, T., De Robertis, E.M. Nature (1999) [Pubmed]
  25. FGF8 initiates inner ear induction in chick and mouse. Ladher, R.K., Wright, T.J., Moon, A.M., Mansour, S.L., Schoenwolf, G.C. Genes Dev. (2005) [Pubmed]
  26. Hormonal induction of differentiation in teratocarcinoma stem cells: generation of parietal endoderm by retinoic acid and dibutyryl cAMP. Strickland, S., Smith, K.K., Marotti, K.R. Cell (1980) [Pubmed]
  27. Follicular cells of the thyroid gland require Pax8 gene function. Mansouri, A., Chowdhury, K., Gruss, P. Nat. Genet. (1998) [Pubmed]
  28. Expression of H-2, laminin and SV40 T and TASA on differentiation of transformed murine teratocarcinoma cells. Knowles, B.B., Pan, S., Solter, D., Linnenbach, A., Croce, C., Huebner, K. Nature (1980) [Pubmed]
  29. G protein signaling from activated rat frizzled-1 to the beta-catenin-Lef-Tcf pathway. Liu, T., DeCostanzo, A.J., Liu, X., Wang Hy, n.u.l.l., Hallagan, S., Moon, R.T., Malbon, C.C. Science (2001) [Pubmed]
  30. Nodal signalling in the epiblast patterns the early mouse embryo. Brennan, J., Lu, C.C., Norris, D.P., Rodriguez, T.A., Beddington, R.S., Robertson, E.J. Nature (2001) [Pubmed]
  31. Functional intertwining of Dpp and EGFR signaling during Drosophila endoderm induction. Szüts, D., Eresh, S., Bienz, M. Genes Dev. (1998) [Pubmed]
  32. Mice exclusively expressing the short isoform of Smad2 develop normally and are viable and fertile. Dunn, N.R., Koonce, C.H., Anderson, D.C., Islam, A., Bikoff, E.K., Robertson, E.J. Genes Dev. (2005) [Pubmed]
  33. The tumor suppressor gene Smad4/Dpc4 is required for gastrulation and later for anterior development of the mouse embryo. Sirard, C., de la Pompa, J.L., Elia, A., Itie, A., Mirtsos, C., Cheung, A., Hahn, S., Wakeham, A., Schwartz, L., Kern, S.E., Rossant, J., Mak, T.W. Genes Dev. (1998) [Pubmed]
  34. Cdx1 and cdx2 expression during intestinal development. Silberg, D.G., Swain, G.P., Suh, E.R., Traber, P.G. Gastroenterology (2000) [Pubmed]
  35. Targeted disruption of the even-skipped gene, evx1, causes early postimplantation lethality of the mouse conceptus. Spyropoulos, D.D., Capecchi, M.R. Genes Dev. (1994) [Pubmed]
  36. Isolation and characterization of the Fc receptor from the fetal yolk sac of the rat. Roberts, D.M., Guenthert, M., Rodewald, R. J. Cell Biol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  37. Transcriptional regulation in endoderm development: characterization of an enhancer controlling Hnf3g expression by transgenesis and targeted mutagenesis. Hiemisch, H., Schütz, G., Kaestner, K.H. EMBO J. (1997) [Pubmed]
  38. Evidence from molecular cloning that SPARC, a major product of mouse embryo parietal endoderm, is related to an endothelial cell 'culture shock' glycoprotein of Mr 43,000. Mason, I.J., Taylor, A., Williams, J.G., Sage, H., Hogan, B.L. EMBO J. (1986) [Pubmed]
  39. Deletion of the mouse P450c17 gene causes early embryonic lethality. Bair, S.R., Mellon, S.H. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2004) [Pubmed]
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