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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

An in-frame deletion in the alpha(2C) adrenergic receptor is common in African--Americans.

alpha(2) adrenergic receptors are activated by adrenaline and noradrenaline, and three subtypes (ie, A, B, C) have differential affinities for antagonists and medications. The alpha(2c) adrenergic receptor (ADRA2C), located on chromosome 4p16.3, is a candidate gene for schizophrenia because it binds clozapine, an atypical neuroleptic useful for treatment-resistant schizophrenia. In addition, ADRA2C binds clonidine which is prescribed for three psychiatric diseases. This report communicates the findings of the genetic scanning of this gene of very tough GC content. The complete coding sequences and splice junctions were scanned with [DOVAM]-S in 104 schizophrenics, and pilot probes of patients with alcoholism (41 patients), cocaine abuse (25 patients), puerperal psychosis (30 patients), attention deficient/hyperactivity disorder (25 patients) and autism (25 patients). Six sequence variants were found, including five silent polymorphisms (allele frequencies 0.6--25%) and an in-frame deletion of a homologous repeat at nucleotides 967--978 (ie, TIDRU(1)). Genotyping of the normal two repeat unit of the Third Intracytoplasmic Domain Repeat Unit (TIDRU(2)) and the deleted variant (TIDRU(1)) revealed that TIDRU(1) had allelic frequencies of 39% (11/28) and 3.5% (6/172) in African-American and Caucasian schizophrenics, respectively, and it occurred with equal frequency in controls (44%, 31/70 and 3.0%, 6/198). TIDRU(1) occurs at a location similar to the third intracytoplasmic 48-nucleotide repeat unit in the DRD4 that is associated with ADHD. Although these data do not suggest an association of TIDRU(1) with schizophrenia, additional studies are needed to see whether TIDRU(1) confers a clinical phenotype.[1]


  1. An in-frame deletion in the alpha(2C) adrenergic receptor is common in African--Americans. Feng, J., Zheng, J., Gelernter, J., Kranzler, H., Cook, E., Goldman, D., Jones, I.R., Craddock, N., Heston, L.L., Delisi, L., Peltonen, L., Bennett, W.P., Sommer, S.S. Mol. Psychiatry (2001) [Pubmed]
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