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Chemical Compound Review

Catapres     N-(2,6-dichlorophenyl)-4,5- dihydro-1H...

Synonyms: Clofenil, Klofelin, Klofenil, Dixarit, Gemiton, ...
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Disease relevance of M 5041T


Psychiatry related information on M 5041T


High impact information on M 5041T


Chemical compound and disease context of M 5041T


Biological context of M 5041T


Anatomical context of M 5041T

  • Functional restoration of the traumatically injured spinal cord in cats by clonidine [23].
  • Multiple G-protein-dependent pathways mediate the antisecretory effects of somatostatin and clonidine in the HT29-19A colonic cell line [24].
  • The pseudolipolytic effect of clonidine was significantly more pronounced in gluteal as compared with abdominal adipose tissue [25].
  • The effects of clonidine, an alpha 2-adrenergic agonist, and verapamil, a Ca2+ channel blocker, on Na+ and Cl- absorption were studied in stripped jejunal mucosa from control and transmissible-gastroenteritis-virus-infected piglets [26].
  • These studies indicate that in this experimental diarrhea model, clonidine has antidiarrheal properties that are due largely to effects on motility of the gut but that clonidine also modestly stimulates the net rate of absorption by intestinal mucosa [27].

Associations of M 5041T with other chemical compounds

  • Morphine, methadone, meperidine, fentanyl, and clonidine rapidly depressed transmission through sympathetic preganglionic neurons in cats with the spinal cord transected [28].
  • RESULTS: Clonidine and diltiazem had consistent response rates regardless of renin profile (76%, 67%, and 80% for low, medium, and high renin, respectively, for clonidine and 83%, 82%, and 83%, respectively, for diltiazem for patients with baseline DBP of 95-99 mm Hg) [29].
  • The effects of the alpha-1 adrenoceptor agonist phenylephrine and alpha-2 adrenoceptor agonist clonidine and their corresponding selective antagonists, prazosin and yohimbine, respectively, were examined on the resting IASP, and on rectal balloon distension (RBD)-mediated IAS relaxation [30].
  • When ethanol was added to the perfusate to monitor blood flow, the escape of alcohol from the dialysate was accelerated by 30% with hydralazine or nitroprusside (P < 0.01) and 30% retarded (P < 0.05) by clonidine (10(-10) mol/liter) [25].
  • Thus, sodium depletion stimulates total renin release, while propranolol and clonidine produce divergent responses of active renin and prorenin, the changes in prorenin depending on the changes induced in blood-pressure [31].
  • Taken together, the data indicate that clonidine alleviates memory impairments produced by glutamate hypofunction, but not by hippocampal damage [32].

Gene context of M 5041T

  • In addition, ADRA2C binds clonidine which is prescribed for three psychiatric diseases [33].
  • The data do not suggest that blunted GH responses to clonidine and/or GHRH represent specific features of depression [34].
  • Moxonidine and clonidine also increased by greater than two-fold the proportion of ERK-1 and ERK-2 in the phosphorylated active form [35].
  • In CGD or IGHD children mean plasma GH peak after acute clonidine (14.8 +/- 2.6 and 4.1 +/- 1.2 ng/mL, respectively) was not significantly different from that observed after either dose of Gal.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)[36]
  • In contrast, NT-2 had no effect in NTR1 null mice, whereas the hypomotility effect of clonidine was intact [37].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of M 5041T


  1. Transdermal clonidine in a patient with resistant hypertension and malabsorption. White, W.B., Gilbert, J.C. N. Engl. J. Med. (1985) [Pubmed]
  2. Letter: Late toxicity of clonidine withdrawal. Stelzer, F.P., Stubebbord, J.J., Screenivasan, V., Venuto, R.C. N. Engl. J. Med. (1976) [Pubmed]
  3. The diagnosis and treatment of baroreflex failure. Robertson, D., Hollister, A.S., Biaggioni, I., Netterville, J.L., Mosqueda-Garcia, R., Robertson, R.M. N. Engl. J. Med. (1993) [Pubmed]
  4. Clonidine suppression test in pheochromocytoma. Gáspár, L., Kiss, Z., Iványi, T., Lászlé, F.A. N. Engl. J. Med. (1982) [Pubmed]
  5. Imipramine in patients with chest pain despite normal coronary angiograms. Cannon, R.O., Quyyumi, A.A., Mincemoyer, R., Stine, A.M., Gracely, R.H., Smith, W.B., Geraci, M.F., Black, B.C., Uhde, T.W., Waclawiw, M.A. N. Engl. J. Med. (1994) [Pubmed]
  6. Cigarette craving, smoking withdrawal, and clonidine. Glassman, A.H., Jackson, W.K., Walsh, B.T., Roose, S.P., Rosenfeld, B. Science (1984) [Pubmed]
  7. Clonidine, depression, and smoking cessation. Hughes, J.R. JAMA (1988) [Pubmed]
  8. Clonidine in Tourette syndrome. McKeith, I.G., Williams, A., Nicol, A.R. Lancet (1981) [Pubmed]
  9. Drugs five years later: clonidine. Lowenstein, J. Ann. Intern. Med. (1980) [Pubmed]
  10. Behavioral and physiologic effects of short-term and long-term administration of clonidine in panic disorder. Uhde, T.W., Stein, M.B., Vittone, B.J., Siever, L.J., Boulenger, J.P., Klein, E., Mellman, T.A. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry (1989) [Pubmed]
  11. Reduction of sympathetic hyperactivity by enalapril in patients with chronic renal failure. Ligtenberg, G., Blankestijn, P.J., Oey, P.L., Klein, I.H., Dijkhorst-Oei, L.T., Boomsma, F., Wieneke, G.H., van Huffelen, A.C., Koomans, H.A. N. Engl. J. Med. (1999) [Pubmed]
  12. Novel form of drug-dependence--on adenosine in guinea pig ileum. Collier, H.O., Tucker, J.F. Nature (1983) [Pubmed]
  13. Tolerance of locus coeruleus neurones to morphine and suppression of withdrawal response by clonidine. Aghajanian, G.K. Nature (1978) [Pubmed]
  14. Prazosin and clonidine for moderately severe hypertension. Kirkendall, W.M., Hammond, J.J., Thomas, J.C., Overturf, M.L., Zama, A. JAMA (1978) [Pubmed]
  15. Heavy smokers, smoking cessation, and clonidine. Results of a double-blind, randomized trial. Glassman, A.H., Stetner, F., Walsh, B.T., Raizman, P.S., Fleiss, J.L., Cooper, T.B., Covey, L.S. JAMA (1988) [Pubmed]
  16. Microvillus inclusion disease. In vitro jejunal electrolyte transport. Rhoads, J.M., Vogler, R.C., Lacey, S.R., Reddick, R.L., Keku, E.O., Azizkhan, R.G., Berschneider, H.M. Gastroenterology (1991) [Pubmed]
  17. Experimental diabetic diarrhea in rats. Intestinal mucosal denervation hypersensitivity and treatment with clonidine. Chang, E.B., Fedorak, R.N., Field, M. Gastroenterology (1986) [Pubmed]
  18. Effects of Alzheimer's disease and normal aging on cerebrospinal fluid norepinephrine responses to yohimbine and clonidine. Peskind, E.R., Wingerson, D., Murray, S., Pascualy, M., Dobie, D.J., Le Corre, P., Le Verge, R., Veith, R.C., Raskind, M.A. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry (1995) [Pubmed]
  19. alpha 2-adrenoceptor-mediated hyperpolarization of locus coeruleus neurons: intracellular studies in vivo. Aghajanian, G.K., VanderMaelen, C.P. Science (1982) [Pubmed]
  20. Imidazoline receptors and their endogenous ligands. Regunathan, S., Reis, D.J. Annu. Rev. Pharmacol. Toxicol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  21. Mechanism of intestinal absorption. Effect of clonidine on rabbit ileal villus and crypt cells. Sundaram, U. J. Clin. Invest. (1995) [Pubmed]
  22. Sympathetic tone modulates portal venous pressure in alcoholic cirrhosis. Willett, I.R., Esler, M., Jennings, G., Dudley, F.J. Lancet (1986) [Pubmed]
  23. Functional restoration of the traumatically injured spinal cord in cats by clonidine. Naftchi, N.E. Science (1982) [Pubmed]
  24. Multiple G-protein-dependent pathways mediate the antisecretory effects of somatostatin and clonidine in the HT29-19A colonic cell line. Warhurst, G., Turnberg, L.A., Higgs, N.B., Tonge, A., Grundy, J., Fogg, K.E. J. Clin. Invest. (1993) [Pubmed]
  25. Role of vascular alpha-2 adrenoceptors in regulating lipid mobilization from human adipose tissue. Galitzky, J., Lafontan, M., Nordenström, J., Arner, P. J. Clin. Invest. (1993) [Pubmed]
  26. Electrolyte transport in piglets infected with transmissible gastroenteritis virus. Stimulation by verapamil and clonidine. Homaidan, F.R., Torres, A., Donowitz, M., Sharp, G.W. Gastroenterology (1991) [Pubmed]
  27. Studies of the antidiarrheal action of clonidine. Effects on motility and intestinal absorption. Schiller, L.R., Santa Ana, C.A., Morawski, S.G., Fordtran, J.S. Gastroenterology (1985) [Pubmed]
  28. Spinal sympathetic neurons: possible sites of opiate-withdrawal suppression by clonidine. Franz, D.N., Hare, D.B., McCloskey, K.L. Science (1982) [Pubmed]
  29. Age-race subgroup compared with renin profile as predictors of blood pressure response to antihypertensive therapy. Department of Veterans Affairs Cooperative Study Group on Antihypertensive Agents. Preston, R.A., Materson, B.J., Reda, D.J., Williams, D.W., Hamburger, R.J., Cushman, W.C., Anderson, R.J. JAMA (1998) [Pubmed]
  30. Role of alpha adrenoceptors in opossum internal anal sphincter. Yamato, S., Rattan, S. J. Clin. Invest. (1990) [Pubmed]
  31. Plasma renin and "prorenin" in essential hypertension during sodium depletion, beta-blockade, and reduced arterial pressure. Atlas, S.A., Sealey, J.E., Laragh, J.H., Moon, C. Lancet (1977) [Pubmed]
  32. The effects of clonidine on discrete-trial delayed spatial alternation in two rat models of memory loss. Bardgett, M.E., Points, M., Ramsey-Faulkner, C., Topmiller, J., Roflow, J., McDaniel, T., Lamontagne, T., Griffith, M.S. Neuropsychopharmacology (2008) [Pubmed]
  33. An in-frame deletion in the alpha(2C) adrenergic receptor is common in African--Americans. Feng, J., Zheng, J., Gelernter, J., Kranzler, H., Cook, E., Goldman, D., Jones, I.R., Craddock, N., Heston, L.L., Delisi, L., Peltonen, L., Bennett, W.P., Sommer, S.S. Mol. Psychiatry (2001) [Pubmed]
  34. Growth hormone response to growth hormone-releasing hormone and clonidine in depression. Gann, H., Riemann, D., Stoll, S., Berger, M., Müller, W.E. Biol. Psychiatry (1995) [Pubmed]
  35. The I1-imidazoline receptor in PC12 pheochromocytoma cells activates protein kinases C, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). Edwards, L., Fishman, D., Horowitz, P., Bourbon, N., Kester, M., Ernsberger, P. J. Neurochem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  36. The effects of galanin on growth hormone secretion in children of normal and short stature. Loche, S., Cella, S.G., Puggioni, R., Stabilini, L., Pintor, C., Müller, E.E. Pediatr. Res. (1989) [Pubmed]
  37. The effects of deleting the mouse neurotensin receptor NTR1 on central and peripheral responses to neurotensin. Pettibone, D.J., Hess, J.F., Hey, P.J., Jacobson, M.A., Leviten, M., Lis, E.V., Mallorga, P.J., Pascarella, D.M., Snyder, M.A., Williams, J.B., Zeng, Z. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. (2002) [Pubmed]
  38. Drug therapy: clonidine, a new antihypertensive drug. Pettinger, W.A. N. Engl. J. Med. (1975) [Pubmed]
  39. Disposition of drugs in man by radioimmunoassay. Spector, S. Pharmacol. Rev. (1982) [Pubmed]
  40. Randomized, controlled trial of clonidine for smoking cessation in a primary care setting. Franks, P., Harp, J., Bell, B. JAMA (1989) [Pubmed]
  41. Effect of clonidine on atrioventricular conduction. Kibler, L.E., Gazes, P.C. JAMA (1977) [Pubmed]
  42. Epidural clonidine produces analgesia. Tamsen, A., Gordh, T. Lancet (1984) [Pubmed]
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