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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Effects of procymidone, fludioxonil and pyrimethanil on two non-target aquatic plants.

Procymidone, fludioxonil, and pyrimethanil are widely used to control the pathogenic fungus Botrytis cinerea in Champagne's vineyards. These fungicides may end up in surface waters and present potential risks for aquatic vascular plants and algae. Therefore, their toxicity was evaluated on Lemna minor and Scenedesmus acutus in six-day or 48-h tests, respectively. Based on growth and chlorophyll (Chl) content of L. minor and S. acutus cultures, the results showed that the alga was the most sensitive to the fungicides. Among the fungicides, pyrimethanil was the most toxic for L. minor, its nominal IC50 was 46.16 mg l(-1) and that of the other two was >100 mg l(-1). In contrast, pyrimethanil appeared the least toxic for S. acutus at low concentration, nominal IC50 were 22.81, 4.85, and 4.55 mg l(-1) for pyrimethanil, fludioxonil, and procymidone, respectively. Fate of the fungicides in the media was also investigated and acute toxicity of the agrochemicals is discussed in regard to concentration in the culture media. Poor solubility of procymidone and fludioxonil appeared to be partly responsible for the low toxicity of these fungicides. Based on these toxicity data and the concentrations found in ponds collecting vineyard runoff water, these pesticides should not impair the establishment of pioneer plants.[1]


  1. Effects of procymidone, fludioxonil and pyrimethanil on two non-target aquatic plants. Verdisson, S., Couderchet, M., Vernet, G. Chemosphere (2001) [Pubmed]
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