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Chemical Compound Review

Saphire     4-(2,2- difluorobenzo[1,3]dioxol-4- yl)-1H...

Synonyms: Scholar, Savior, Fludioxonil, Geoxe, Maxim PSP, ...
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Disease relevance of Fludioxonil

  • Combination of fludioxonil and the calcineurin inhibitor FK506 synergistically inhibited C. neoformans growth. mpk1Delta MAPK mutant strains exhibited fludioxonil hypersensitivity, indicating that this pathway also contributes to drug resistance [1].
  • Fludioxonil at a concentration of 450 mg litre(-1), gave 98 and 92% control of blue mold of apples in the simulated shelf-life studies after CA and common cold storages, respectively [2].
  • This conclusion is based on toxicity assays and northern analysis experiments which show that BcatrB replacement mutants, which do not express the BcatrB gene, show an increased sensitivity to the phenylpyrrole fungicides fludioxonil and fenpiclonil [3].

High impact information on Fludioxonil


Biological context of Fludioxonil

  • Fludioxonil exerted a fungistatic effect on the wild-type strain H99, but exhibited fungicidal activity against calcineurin mutant strains, indicating that the calcineurin pathway contributes to drug resistance in this fungus [1].
  • Fludioxonil treatment caused cell growth inhibition following cell swelling and cytokinesis defects in the sensitive wild-type but not in a hog1Delta mutant strain, suggesting that Hog1 activation results in morphological cellular defects [1].
  • In response to osmotic stress and fludioxonil, expression of six genes that for glycerol synthesis (gcy-1, gcy-3, and dak-1), gluconeogenesis (fbp-1 and pck-1), and catalase (ctt-1) was activated in the wild-type strain, but not in the os-2 mutant [5].
  • By obtained results, we may suggest for the activation of those enzymes to be sensitive and valuable biomarkers of oxidative stress induced by fludioxonil [6].
  • It is known that mutations within the histidine kinase NIK1/OS-1 gene confer resistance to iprodione and fludioxonil in Neurospora crassa, while the fungicide-insensitive S. cerevisiae has only one histidine kinase SLN1 gene in its genome [7].

Anatomical context of Fludioxonil


Associations of Fludioxonil with other chemical compounds


Gene context of Fludioxonil


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Fludioxonil

  • Modulated PAM fluorometry and Plant Efficiency Analyser methods were used to investigate photosynthetic fluorescence parameters of alga Scenedesmus obliquus exposed to inhibitory effect of fungicides copper sulphate and fludioxonil (N-(4-nitrophenyl)-N'-propyl-uree) [6].


  1. Calcineurin, Mpk1 and Hog1 MAPK pathways independently control fludioxonil antifungal sensitivity in Cryptococcus neoformans. Kojima, K., Bahn, Y.S., Heitman, J. Microbiology (Reading, Engl.) (2006) [Pubmed]
  2. Control of blue mold (Penicillium expansum) by fludioxonil in apples (cv Empire) under controlled atmosphere and cold storage conditions. Errampalli, D., Northover, J., Skog, L., Brubacher, N.R., Collucci, C.A. Pest Manag. Sci. (2005) [Pubmed]
  3. The ABC transporter BcatrB from Botrytis cinerea is a determinant of the activity of the phenylpyrrole fungicide fludioxonil. Vermeulen, T., Schoonbeek, H., De Waard, M.A. Pest Manag. Sci. (2001) [Pubmed]
  4. Fungicide activity through activation of a fungal signalling pathway. Kojima, K., Takano, Y., Yoshimi, A., Tanaka, C., Kikuchi, T., Okuno, T. Mol. Microbiol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  5. Identification of OS-2 MAP kinase-dependent genes induced in response to osmotic stress, antifungal agent fludioxonil, and heat shock in Neurospora crassa. Noguchi, R., Banno, S., Ichikawa, R., Fukumori, F., Ichiishi, A., Kimura, M., Yamaguchi, I., Fujimura, M. Fungal Genet. Biol. (2007) [Pubmed]
  6. Determination of photosynthetic and enzymatic biomarkers sensitivity used to evaluate toxic effects of copper and fludioxonil in alga Scenedesmus obliquus. Dewez, D., Geoffroy, L., Vernet, G., Popovic, R. Aquat. Toxicol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  7. Effects of iprodione and fludioxonil on glycerol synthesis and hyphal development in Candida albicans. Ochiai, N., Fujimura, M., Oshima, M., Motoyama, T., Ichiishi, A., Yamada-Okabe, H., Yamaguchi, I. Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  8. Photosynthetic responses of Lemna minor exposed to xenobiotics, copper, and their combinations. Frankart, C., Eullaffroy, P., Vernet, G. Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf. (2002) [Pubmed]
  9. Adsorption-desorption dynamics of cyprodinil and fludioxonil in vineyard soils. Arias, M., Torrente, A.C., López, E., Soto, B., Simal-Gándara, J. J. Agric. Food Chem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  10. Determination of fludioxonil and famoxadone in processed fruits and vegetables by liquid chromatography/electrospray tandem mass spectrometry. Sannino, A., Bandini, M. Journal of AOAC International. (2005) [Pubmed]
  11. Effects of clarification and filtration processes on the removal of fungicide residues in red wines (var. Monastrell). Fernández, M.J., Oliva, J., Barba, A., Cámara, M.A. J. Agric. Food Chem. (2005) [Pubmed]
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