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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Sphingosine 1-phosphate and isoform-specific activation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase beta. Evidence for divergence and convergence of receptor-regulated endothelial nitric-oxide synthase signaling pathways.

Sphingosine 1-phosphate ( S1P) is a platelet-derived sphingolipid that elicits diverse biological responses, including angiogenesis, via the activation of G protein-coupled EDG receptors. S1P activates the endothelial isoform of nitric-oxide synthase (eNOS), associated with eNOS phosphorylation at Ser-1179, a site phosphorylated by protein kinase Akt. We explored the proximal signaling pathways that mediate Akt activation and eNOS regulation by S1P/EDG receptors. Akt is regulated by the lipid kinase phosphoinositide 3-kinase ( PI3-K). We found that bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC) express both alpha and beta isoforms of PI3-K, while lacking the gamma isoform. S1P treatment led to the rapid and isoform-specific activation of PI3-Kbeta in BAEC. PI3-Kbeta can be regulated by G protein betagamma subunits (Gbetagamma). The overexpression of a peptide inhibitor of Gbetagamma attenuated S1P- induced eNOS enzyme activation, as well as S1P- induced phosphorylation of eNOS and Akt. In contrast, bradykinin, a classical eNOS agonist, neither activated any PI3-K isoform nor induced eNOS phosphorylation at Ser-1179, despite activating eNOS in BAEC. Vascular endothelial growth factor activated both PI3-Kalpha and PI3-Kbeta via tyrosine kinase pathways and promoted eNOS phosphorylation that was unaffected by Gbetagamma inhibition. These findings indicate that PI3-Kbeta ( regulated by Gbetagamma) may represent a novel molecular locus for eNOS activation by EDG receptors in vascular endothelial cells. These studies also indicate that different eNOS agonists activate distinct signaling pathways that diverge proximally following receptor activation but converge distally to activate eNOS.[1]


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