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MeSH Review

Enzyme Activation

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Disease relevance of Enzyme Activation

  • Role of the tetrameric structure of Escherichia coli pyruvate oxidase in enzyme activation and lipid binding [1].
  • Concomitant exposing the Salmonella typhimurium bacteria strain TA102 to one of the PAHs and light (1.1 J/cm2 UVA+2.1 J/cm2 visible) without the activation enzyme S9, strong photomutagenic response is observed for anthracene, benz[a]anthracene, benzo[ghi]perylene, benzo[a]pyrene, indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene, and pyrene [2].
  • After an oral dose of 3000 mg/kg body weight of bromobenzene, the glucuronyltransferases I and II were increased, indicating an enzyme activation by this organic solvent via membrane irritation [3].
  • Ethanol could lead to the onset of pancreatitis in a number of ways; the most recently discovered is its effect on intrapancreatic digestive enzyme activation, by either sensitizing acinar cells to pathologic stimuli or stimulating the release of a secretagogue (cholecystokinin) from duodenal I cells [4].

High impact information on Enzyme Activation


Biological context of Enzyme Activation


Anatomical context of Enzyme Activation


Associations of Enzyme Activation with chemical compounds


Gene context of Enzyme Activation

  • The rate of enzyme activation in the presence of non-hydrolysable analogs of GTP increases with the number of CDC25 gene copies present in the cell [25].
  • We have evaluated the mechanism underlying Btk enzyme activation and have explored the potential regulatory relationship between Btk and Src protein kinases [26].
  • CPP32/apopain/caspase-3, responsible for the proteolytic cleavage of poly (ADP) ribose polymerase (PARP), was also studied and treatment of ECFC with IFNgamma resulted in an increased concentration of caspase-3 by 24 hours and a clear induction of enzyme activation by 48 hours, which was identified by the appearance of its p17-kD peptide fragment [27].
  • SEA-induced COX-2 mRNA was translated adequately to protein, whereas cPLA2 protein level was not enhanced, but rapidly phosphorylated, a process previously linked to the enzyme activation [28].
  • Our results indicate that the Ca(2+)-induced conformation change of NOX5 N terminus led to enzyme activation through an intra-molecular interaction [29].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Enzyme Activation


  1. Role of the tetrameric structure of Escherichia coli pyruvate oxidase in enzyme activation and lipid binding. Wang, A.Y., Chang, Y.Y., Cronan, J.E. J. Biol. Chem. (1991) [Pubmed]
  2. Photomutagenicity of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from the US EPA priority pollutant list. Yan, J., Wang, L., Fu, P.P., Yu, H. Mutat. Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  3. Studies on liver toxicants: influence of bromobenzene on hepatic microsomal enzymes in mice. Beyhl, F.E., Mayer, D.G. Toxicol. Lett. (1981) [Pubmed]
  4. Pathophysiology of alcohol-induced pancreatitis. Lerch, M.M., Albrecht, E., Ruthenbürger, M., Mayerle, J., Halangk, W., Krüger, B. Pancreas (2003) [Pubmed]
  5. Stimulus-response coupling in neurohypophysial peptide target cells. Jard, S., Bockaert, J. Physiol. Rev. (1975) [Pubmed]
  6. Light- and GTP-regulated interaction of GTPase and other proteins with bovine photoreceptor membranes. Kühn, H. Nature (1980) [Pubmed]
  7. The hormone-induced regulation of contact-dependent cell-cell communication by phosphorylation. Stagg, R.B., Fletcher, W.H. Endocr. Rev. (1990) [Pubmed]
  8. In vitro effects of 4-hydroperoxycyclophosphamide on human immunoregulatory T subset function. I. Selective effects on lymphocyte function in T-B cell collaboration. Ozer, H., Cowens, J.W., Colvin, M., Nussbaum-Blumenson, A., Sheedy, D. J. Exp. Med. (1982) [Pubmed]
  9. Regulation of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase activity in murine epidermis. Modulation of enzyme content and activation state by barrier requirements. Proksch, E., Elias, P.M., Feingold, K.R. J. Clin. Invest. (1990) [Pubmed]
  10. D-myo-inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate 3-kinase A is activated by receptor activation through a calcium:calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II phosphorylation mechanism. Communi, D., Vanweyenberg, V., Erneux, C. EMBO J. (1997) [Pubmed]
  11. Properties of purified rat hepatic 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase and regulation of enzyme activity. Edwards, P.A., Lemongello, D., Kane, J., Shechter, I., Fogelman, A.M. J. Biol. Chem. (1980) [Pubmed]
  12. Identification of the ubiquitin interfacial residues in a ubiquitin-E2 covalent complex. Hamilton, K.S., Ellison, M.J., Shaw, G.S. J. Biomol. NMR (2000) [Pubmed]
  13. Suppression of intracellular resistance factors by adriamycin augments heat-induced apoptosis via interleukin-1beta-converting enzyme activation in pancreatic carcinoma cells. Kobayashi, D., Watanabe, N., Sasaki, H., Okamoto, T., Tsuji, N., Sato, T., Yamauchi, N., Niitsu, Y. Int. J. Cancer (1998) [Pubmed]
  14. Bile acids, non-phorbol-ester-type tumor promoters, stimulate the phosphorylation of protein kinase C substrates in human platelets and colon cell line HT29. Huang, X.P., Fan, X.T., Desjeux, J.F., Castagna, M. Int. J. Cancer (1992) [Pubmed]
  15. Role of activation of protein kinase C in the stimulation of colonic epithelial proliferation by unsaturated fatty acids. Craven, P.A., DeRubertis, F.R. Gastroenterology (1988) [Pubmed]
  16. Protein kinase C mediates the mitogenic action of thrombopoietin in c-Mpl-expressing UT-7 cells. Hong, Y., Dumènil, D., van der Loo, B., Goncalves, F., Vainchenker, W., Erusalimsky, J.D. Blood (1998) [Pubmed]
  17. Activation of stress-activator protein kinase/c-Jun N-terminal kinase by the non-TPA-type tumor promoter palytoxin. Kuroki, D.W., Bignami, G.S., Wattenberg, E.V. Cancer Res. (1996) [Pubmed]
  18. Plasma membrane estrogen receptors are coupled to endothelial nitric-oxide synthase through Galpha(i). Wyckoff, M.H., Chambliss, K.L., Mineo, C., Yuhanna, I.S., Mendelsohn, M.E., Mumby, S.M., Shaul, P.W. J. Biol. Chem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  19. Calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II and protein kinase C-mediated phosphorylation and activation of D-myo-inositol 1,4, 5-trisphosphate 3-kinase B in astrocytes. Communi, D., Dewaste, V., Erneux, C. J. Biol. Chem. (1999) [Pubmed]
  20. Inhibitor binding induces active site stabilization of the HCV NS3 protein serine protease domain. Barbato, G., Cicero, D.O., Cordier, F., Narjes, F., Gerlach, B., Sambucini, S., Grzesiek, S., Matassa, V.G., De Francesco, R., Bazzo, R. EMBO J. (2000) [Pubmed]
  21. Direct phosphorylation of brain tyrosine hydroxylase by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase: mechanism of enzyme activation. Joh, T.H., Park, D.H., Reis, D.J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1978) [Pubmed]
  22. Activation of the antioxidant enzyme 1-CYS peroxiredoxin requires glutathionylation mediated by heterodimerization with pi GST. Manevich, Y., Feinstein, S.I., Fisher, A.B. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2004) [Pubmed]
  23. Binding of calmodulin to the neuronal cytoskeletal protein kinase type II cooperatively stimulates autophosphorylation. Le Vine, H., Sahyoun, N.E., Cuatrecasas, P. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1986) [Pubmed]
  24. Aragonite crystallization in primary cell cultures of multicellular isolates from a hard coral, Pocillopora damicornis. Domart-Coulon, I.J., Elbert, D.C., Scully, E.P., Calimlim, P.S., Ostrander, G.K. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2001) [Pubmed]
  25. In vitro reconstitution of cdc25 regulated S. cerevisiae adenylyl cyclase and its kinetic properties. Engelberg, D., Simchen, G., Levitzki, A. EMBO J. (1990) [Pubmed]
  26. Src family protein tyrosine kinases induce autoactivation of Bruton's tyrosine kinase. Mahajan, S., Fargnoli, J., Burkhardt, A.L., Kut, S.A., Saouaf, S.J., Bolen, J.B. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  27. Interferon gamma induces upregulation and activation of caspases 1, 3, and 8 to produce apoptosis in human erythroid progenitor cells. Dai, C., Krantz, S.B. Blood (1999) [Pubmed]
  28. Superantigen-induced collagenase gene expression in human IFN-gamma-treated fibroblast-like synoviocytes involves prostaglandin E2. Evidence for a role of cyclooxygenase-2 and cytosolic phospholipase A2. Mehindate, K., al-Daccak, R., Dayer, J.M., Kennedy, B.P., Kris, C., Borgeat, P., Poubelle, P.E., Mourad, W. J. Immunol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  29. Mechanism of Ca2+ activation of the NADPH oxidase 5 (NOX5). Bánfi, B., Tirone, F., Durussel, I., Knisz, J., Moskwa, P., Molnár, G.Z., Krause, K.H., Cox, J.A. J. Biol. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  30. Copper/topa quinone-containing histamine oxidase from Arthrobacter globiformis. Molecular cloning and sequencing, overproduction of precursor enzyme, and generation of topa quinone cofactor. Choi, Y.H., Matsuzaki, R., Fukui, T., Shimizu, E., Yorifuji, T., Sato, H., Ozaki, Y., Tanizawa, K. J. Biol. Chem. (1995) [Pubmed]
  31. Molecular cloning of human D-dopachrome tautomerase cDNA: N-terminal proline is essential for enzyme activation. Nishihira, J., Fujinaga, M., Kuriyama, T., Suzuki, M., Sugimoto, H., Nakagawa, A., Tanaka, I., Sakai, M. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (1998) [Pubmed]
  32. Protein kinase C activation is involved in ultraviolet B irradiation-induced endothelial cell ICAM-1 up-regulation and lymphocyte-endothelium interaction in vitro. Funk, J.O., Holler, E., Kohlhuber, F., Ueffing, M., Bornkamm, G.W., Kind, P., Eissner, G. Scand. J. Immunol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  33. Beta-adrenergic receptors, adenylate cyclase activation, and myofibril enzyme activity in hypothyroid rats. Dowell, R.T., Atkins, F.L., Love, S. Am. J. Physiol. (1994) [Pubmed]
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