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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Induction of Tie-1 and Tie-2 receptor protein expression after cerebral ischemia-reperfusion.

Tie-1 and Tie-2 are receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) that are exclusively expressed in endothelial cells and play important roles in endothelial cell biology. The authors have reported previously the temporal profiles of Tie-1 and Tie-2 mRNA expression after focal cerebral ischemia-reperfusion. In the current study, the localization of Tie-1/Tie-2 mRNA and proteins were further investigated in the same focal ischemia model. In situ hybridization showed that, after 60-minute ischemia and 72-hour reperfusion, both Tie-1 and Tie-2 mRNA appeared as capillary-like structures in the ischemic middle cerebral artery (MCA) cortex. Western blot analysis showed a biphasic expression of Tie-1 protein in the same region. The first peak, spanning the ischemic and early reperfusion period. was of low intensity and short-lived. The second peak was of greater intensity and spanning the period from 72 to 168 hours after reperfusion. Similarly, Tie-2 expression at the protein level also exhibited a biphasic pattern. Immunohistochemical studies, after 72 hours of reperfusion, showed that although Tie-1 and Tie-2 were detected within the ischemic cortex, they actually were expressed in different populations of endothelial cells in different regions. In agreement with the in situ hybridization study, Tie-1 immunoreactivity appeared as capillary-like structures in cortical layers 2 to 4. Similar capillary-like appearance of Tie-2 immunoreactivity was noted in the outer cortical layers. In addition, Tie-2 immunoreactivity also was observed in cortical layer 6b, where de novo large vessel formation was noted. Cellular colocalization experiments revealed that Tie-2 is expressed in proximity to its antagonist, Angpo-2, as well as basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in cortical layer 1, where active vessel remodeling was noted. Interestingly, bFGF only partially colocalized with VEGF, suggesting differential roles for these angiogenic factors during vessel remodeling. Tie-1 protein, to a lesser degree, also colocalized with Angpo-2, bFGF, and VEGF in cortical layer 1. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed increased regional cerebral blood flow (CBF) corresponding to the expression of these angiogenesis gene products. Together, these findings suggest that the evolving expression of angiogenesis genes underlie the robust vascular remodeling after ischemia and reperfusion.[1]


  1. Induction of Tie-1 and Tie-2 receptor protein expression after cerebral ischemia-reperfusion. Lin, T.N., Nian, G.M., Chen, S.F., Cheung, W.M., Chang, C., Lin, W.C., Hsu, C.Y. J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. (2001) [Pubmed]
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