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Mechanisms of transcriptional repression by the t(8;21)-, t(12;21)-, and inv(16)-encoded fusion proteins.

AML-1 is one of the most frequently translocated genes in human leukemia. AML-1 binds DNA and activates or represses transcription, while the chromosomal translocation fusion proteins in acute myeloid leukemia subvert these functions. The t(8;21) is the second most frequent translocation in acute myeloid leukemia and creates a fusion between the DNA binding domain of AML-1 and the ETO (also known as MTG8) corepressor. The t(12;21) is found in up to 25% of pediatric B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemias and fuses the ETS family transcription factor TEL to the amino terminus of AML-1. In addition, the inv(16), the most frequent translocation in acute myeloid leukemia, fuses the AML-1 cofactor CBFbeta to the smooth muscle myosin heavy chain MYH11. Both the t(8;21) and t(12;21) create transcriptional repressors that impair AML-1 target gene expression. We demonstrated that the fusion proteins encoded by these translocations contact the nuclear hormone corepressors ( N-CoR/ SMRT), mSin3A, and histone deacetylases. We have also found that both TEL and AML-1 interact with mSin3A. TEL also binds N-CoR and histone deacetylase-3, indicating that wild-type TEL is a transcriptional repressor. The t(12;21) fuses the mSin3A interaction domain of TEL to AML-1 to transform AML-1 from a regulated to an unregulated transcriptional repressor. The recognition that AML-1 interacts with mSin3A to repress transcription suggested that the inv(16) fusion protein might also repress the transcription of AML-1-target genes. In fact, the inv(16) encodes a protein that cooperates with AML-1 to repress transcription. The inv(16) fusion protein was found in a ternary complex with AML-1 and mSin3A, suggesting that the inv(16) also acts by recruiting transcriptional corepressors and histone deacetylases.[1]

References

  1. Mechanisms of transcriptional repression by the t(8;21)-, t(12;21)-, and inv(16)-encoded fusion proteins. Heibert, S.W., Lutterbach, B., Durst, K., Wang, L., Linggi, B., Wu, S., Wood, L., Amann, J., King, D., Hou, Y. Cancer Chemother. Pharmacol. (2001) [Pubmed]
 
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