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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

A schistosome-expressed immunomodulatory glycoconjugate expands peritoneal Gr1(+) macrophages that suppress naive CD4(+) T cell proliferation via an IFN-gamma and nitric oxide-dependent mechanism.

Lacto-N-fucopentaose III (LNFPIII) is found in human milk and on the Th2 driving helminth parasite Schistosoma mansoni. This pentasaccharide drives Th2-type responses in vivo and in vitro when conjugated to a carrier. In an attempt to further understand early events in Th1 to Th2 switching, we examined phenotypic and functional changes in peritoneal cell populations in BALB/c and SCID mice following LNFPIII-dextran injection. We found that i.p. injection with LNFPIII-dextran resulted in rapid (<20 h) expansion of the Gr1(+) subpopulation of F4/80(+)/CD11b(+) peritoneal cells, comprising up to 75% of F4/80(+)/CD11b(+) peritoneal cells compared with 18% in uninjected or dextran-injected mice. Functionally, these cells suppressed anti-CD3- and anti-CD28-induced proliferation of naive CD4(+) T cells. LNFPIII-dextran also expanded functional Gr1(+) suppressor macrophages in SCID mice, demonstrating that expansion and function of suppressor cells did not require T cells. Suppression in both BALB/c and SCID mice was NO and IFN-gamma dependent, as addition of inhibitors of inducible NO synthase (N(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine), as well as anti-IFN-gamma Abs, restored the ability of CD4(+) T cells to proliferate in vitro. Depletion of the F4/80(+) subset of Gr1(+) cells eliminated the suppressive activity of peritoneal exudate cells showing that these cells were macrophages. Thus, LNFPIII-dextran rapidly expands the Gr1(+) suppressor macrophage population in the peritoneal cavities of otherwise naive mice. These Gr1(+) cells suppress proliferation of naive CD4(+) T cells in an NO-dependent mechanism, and may play a regulatory role in the switching of Th1- to Th2-type responses.[1]


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