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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Mechanisms of regulation of phospholipase D1 and D2 by the heterotrimeric G proteins G13 and Gq.

Our earlier studies of rat brain phospholipase D1 (rPLD1) showed that the enzyme could be activated in cells by alpha subunits of the heterotrimeric G proteins G(13) and G(q). Recently, we showed that rPLD1 is modified by Ser/Thr phosphorylation and palmitoylation. In this study, we first investigated the roles of these post-translational modifications on the activation of rPLD1 by constitutively active Galpha(13)Q226L and Galpha(q)Q209L. Mutations of Cys(240) and Cys(241) of rPLD1, which abolish both post-translational modifications, did not affect the ability of either Galpha(13)Q226L or Galpha(q)Q209L to activate rPLD1. However, the RhoA-insensitive mutants, rPLD1(K946A,K962A) and rPLD1(K962Q), were not activated by Galpha(13)Q226L, although these mutant enzymes responded to phorbol ester and Galpha(q)Q209L. On the contrary, the PKC-insensitive mutant rPLD1(DeltaN168), which lacks the first 168 amino acids of rPLD1, responded to Galpha(13)Q226L but not to Galpha(q)Q209L. In addition, we found that rPLD2 was strongly activated by Galpha(q)Q209L and phorbol ester. However, surprisingly, the enzymatic activity of rPLD2 was suppressed by Galpha(13)Q226L and constitutively active V14RhoA in COS-7 cells. Abolition of the post-translational modifications of rPLD2 did not alter the effects of Galpha(q)Q209L or Galpha(13)Q226L. The suppressive effect of Galpha(13)Q226L on rPLD2 was reversed by dominant negative N19RhoA and the C3 exoenzyme of Clostridium botulinum, further supporting a role for RhoA. In summary, Galpha(13) activation of rPLD1 in COS-7 cells is mediated by Rho, while Galpha(q) activation requires PKC. rPLD2 is activated by Galpha(q), but is inhibited by Galpha(13). Neither Ser/Thr phosphorylation nor palmitoylation is required for these effects.[1]


  1. Mechanisms of regulation of phospholipase D1 and D2 by the heterotrimeric G proteins G13 and Gq. Xie, Z., Ho, W.T., Spellman, R., Cai, S., Exton, J.H. J. Biol. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
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