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Gene Review

Pld2  -  phospholipase D2

Rattus norvegicus

Synonyms: Choline phosphatase 2, PLD 2, PLD1C, Phosphatidylcholine-hydrolyzing phospholipase D2, Phospholipase D2, ...
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Disease relevance of Pld2

  • Recently, PLD2 was reported as a necessary intermediate in preventing apoptosis induced by hydrogen peroxide or hypoxia in rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells [1].
  • Studies with pertussis toxin and other agents indicate that mastoparan stimulates PLD2 independently of G(i), ARF-1, protein kinase C, and calcium [2].
  • The suppressive effect of Galpha(13)Q226L on rPLD2 was reversed by dominant negative N19RhoA and the C3 exoenzyme of Clostridium botulinum, further supporting a role for RhoA [3].
  • The functional significance of PKCzeta and PLD2 in VSMC adhesion, spreading, and hypertrophy was investigated [4].
  • These results demonstrate that ANG II-induced PLD activation is regulated by PKCzeta and suggest a crucial role of PKCzeta-dependent PLD2 in VSMC functions such as adhesion, spreading, and hypertrophy, which are associated with the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and malignant hypertension [4].

High impact information on Pld2


Chemical compound and disease context of Pld2


Biological context of Pld2


Anatomical context of Pld2


Associations of Pld2 with chemical compounds


Other interactions of Pld2

  • We conclude that both activation of ARF6 by antigen and a continual PLD2 activity are essential for local phosphatidylinositol(4,5)bisphosphate generation that regulates dynamic actin cytoskeletal rearrangements [18].
  • To our knowledge, this study is the first demonstration that both ERK1/2 and p38 MAP kinase are involved in the PLD2 activation in PC12 cells exposed to H2O2 [19].
  • Regulation of phospholipase D2 by GTP-dependent interaction with dynamin [20].
  • ANG II-induced neointimal growth is mediated via cPLA2- and PLD2-activated Akt in balloon-injured rat carotid artery [21].
  • Increased phospholipase D2 activity during hypoxia-induced death of PC12 cells: its possible anti-apoptotic role [22].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Pld2


  1. Anti-apoptotic role of phospholipase D isozymes in the glutamate-induced cell death. Kim, K.O., Lee, K.H., Kim, Y.H., Park, S.K., Han, J.S. Exp. Mol. Med. (2003) [Pubmed]
  2. Mastoparan selectively activates phospholipase D2 in cell membranes. Chahdi, A., Choi, W.S., Kim, Y.M., Beaven, M.A. J. Biol. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  3. Mechanisms of regulation of phospholipase D1 and D2 by the heterotrimeric G proteins G13 and Gq. Xie, Z., Ho, W.T., Spellman, R., Cai, S., Exton, J.H. J. Biol. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  4. ANG II stimulates phospholipase D through PKCzeta activation in VSMC: implications in adhesion, spreading, and hypertrophy. Parmentier, J.H., Pavicevic, Z., Malik, K.U. Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  5. Phospholipase D1: a key factor for the exocytotic machinery in neuroendocrine cells. Vitale, N., Caumont, A.S., Chasserot-Golaz, S., Du, G., Wu, S., Sciorra, V.A., Morris, A.J., Frohman, M.A., Bader, M.F. EMBO J. (2001) [Pubmed]
  6. Implication of phospholipase D2 in oxidant-induced phosphoinositide 3-kinase signaling via Pyk2 activation in PC12 cells. Banno, Y., Ohguchi, K., Matsumoto, N., Koda, M., Ueda, M., Hara, A., Dikic, I., Nozawa, Y. J. Biol. Chem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  7. Essential role for phospholipase D2 activation downstream of ERK MAP kinase in nerve growth factor-stimulated neurite outgrowth from PC12 cells. Watanabe, H., Yokozeki, T., Yamazaki, M., Miyazaki, H., Sasaki, T., Maehama, T., Itoh, K., Frohman, M.A., Kanaho, Y. J. Biol. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  8. Differential changes in phospholipase D and phosphatidate phosphohydrolase activities in ischemia-reperfusion of rat heart. Asemu, G., Dent, M.R., Singal, T., Dhalla, N.S., Tappia, P.S. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. (2005) [Pubmed]
  9. Molecular cloning and chromosome mapping of rat phospholipase D genes, Pld1a, Pld1b and Pld2. Nakashima, S., Matsuda, Y., Akao, Y., Yoshimura, S., Sakai, H., Hayakawa, K., Andoh, M., Nozawa, Y. Cytogenet. Cell Genet. (1997) [Pubmed]
  10. Calphostin-C induction of vascular smooth muscle cell apoptosis proceeds through phospholipase D and microtubule inhibition. Zheng, X.L., Gui, Y., Du, G., Frohman, M.A., Peng, D.Q. J. Biol. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  11. Phospholipase D is involved in myogenic differentiation through remodeling of actin cytoskeleton. Komati, H., Naro, F., Mebarek, S., De Arcangelis, V., Adamo, S., Lagarde, M., Prigent, A.F., Némoz, G. Mol. Biol. Cell (2005) [Pubmed]
  12. S100B-RAGE-mediated augmentation of angiotensin II-induced activation of JAK2 in vascular smooth muscle cells is dependent on PLD2. Shaw, S.S., Schmidt, A.M., Banes, A.K., Wang, X., Stern, D.M., Marrero, M.B. Diabetes (2003) [Pubmed]
  13. Bradykinin activates phospholipase D2 via protein kinase cdelta in PC12 cells. Lee, S.D., Lee, B.D., Kim, Y., Suh, P.G., Ryu, S.H. Neurosci. Lett. (2000) [Pubmed]
  14. Signalling role for ARF and phospholipase D in mast cell exocytosis stimulated by crosslinking of the high affinity FcepsilonR1 receptor. Cockcroft, S., Way, G., O'Luanaigh, N., Pardo, R., Sarri, E., Fensome, A. Mol. Immunol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  15. Stability of phospholipase D in primary astrocytes. Jin, S., Schatter, B., Weichel, O., Walev, I., Ryu, S., Klein, J. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (2002) [Pubmed]
  16. ATP-induced mitogenesis is modulated by phospholipase D2 through extracellular signal regulated protein kinase dephosphorylation in rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cells. Lee, C.S., Bae, Y.S., Lee, S.D., Suh, P.G., Ryu, S.H. Neurosci. Lett. (2001) [Pubmed]
  17. ATP-induced focal adhesion kinase activity is negatively modulated by phospholipase D2 in PC12 cells. Bae, Y.S., Ryu, S.H. Exp. Mol. Med. (2001) [Pubmed]
  18. Continual production of phosphatidic acid by phospholipase D is essential for antigen-stimulated membrane ruffling in cultured mast cells. O'Luanaigh, N., Pardo, R., Fensome, A., Allen-Baume, V., Jones, D., Holt, M.R., Cockcroft, S. Mol. Biol. Cell (2002) [Pubmed]
  19. Involvement of ERK and p38 MAP kinase in oxidative stress-induced phospholipase D activation in PC12 cells. Banno, Y., Wang, S., Ito, Y., Izumi, T., Nakashima, S., Shimizu, T., Nozawa, Y. Neuroreport (2001) [Pubmed]
  20. Regulation of phospholipase D2 by GTP-dependent interaction with dynamin. Park, J.B., Lee, C.S., Lee, H.Y., Kim, I.S., Lee, B.D., Jang, I.H., Jung, Y.W., Oh, Y.S., Han, M.Y., Jensen, O.N., Roepstorff, P., Suh, P.G., Ryu, S.H. Adv. Enzyme Regul. (2004) [Pubmed]
  21. ANG II-induced neointimal growth is mediated via cPLA2- and PLD2-activated Akt in balloon-injured rat carotid artery. Li, F., Zhang, C., Schaefer, S., Estes, A., Malik, K.U. Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  22. Increased phospholipase D2 activity during hypoxia-induced death of PC12 cells: its possible anti-apoptotic role. Yamakawa, H., Banno, Y., Nakashima, S., Sawada, M., Yamada, J., Yoshimura, S., Nishimura, Y., Nozawa, Y., Sakai, N. Neuroreport (2000) [Pubmed]
  23. Developmental expression of phospholipase D2 mRNA in rat brain. Peng, J.F., Rhodes, P.G. Int. J. Dev. Neurosci. (2000) [Pubmed]
  24. Localization of mRNAs for phospholipase D (PLD) type 1 and 2 in the brain of developing and mature rat. Saito, S., Sakagami, H., Kondo, H. Brain Res. Dev. Brain Res. (2000) [Pubmed]
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