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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Mutational screening of patients with nonalcoholic chronic pancreatitis: identification of further trypsinogen variants.

OBJECTIVES: Mutations of the cationic trypsinogen (CT) and the serine protease inhibitor, Kazal type 1 (SPINK 1) are associated with chronic pancreatitis. After mutational screening of a cohort of patients with nonalcoholic chronic pancreatitis, we report three novel variants of the trypsinogen molecule and the clinical characteristics of the carriers. METHODS: The coding region of the exon 2 and 3 of the CT gene of 523 patients with chronic nonalcoholic pancreatitis (108 patients with suspected hereditary pancreatitis (HP) and 415 patients with "idio pathic" pancreatitis [IP]) and 82 controls was analyzed after polymerase chain reaction amplification. Clinical characteristics were obtained by questioning the patients and their relatives and physicians. HP was suspected when two members of a family had chronic pancreatitis. A restriction digestion was used to analyze the N34S mutation SPINK1. RESULTS: The mutation R122H of the cationic trypsinogen was found in 21 index patients, N291 in six index patients, and A16V and D22G in one index patient, all from HP families. The N34S mutation of SPINK1 was found in two index patients with a family history of HP. In three patients, the novel point mutations L104P, R116C, and C139F of the cationic trypsinogen were found. A clear autosomally dominant inheritance of chronic pancreatitis was not present in these families. In 75 index patients from HP families (69.4%), no mutation could be found. The SPINK 1-mutation N34S was detected in only one patient carrying a CT mutation, and was found in 68 (16.4%) of patients with IP. CONCLUSIONS: The R122H and N291 mutations of CT are the most common disease-associated mutations in HP; the N34S mutation of SPINK I is the most frequent genetic risk factor associated with IP. The CT gene carries several variations that could be associated with chronic pancreatitis. To avoid overestimating the pathogenetic impact of novel trypsinogen variants, a detailed clinical characterization of all patients with early onset chronic pancreatitis is mandatory.[1]


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