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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review

Risk Factors

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Disease relevance of Risk Factors

  • After controlling for age and several coronary risk factors, we observed a lower risk of coronary disease among men with higher intakes of vitamin E (P for trend = 0.003) [1].
  • The effect was also apparently independent of known cardiovascular risk factors, including age, sex, blood pressure, blood cholesterol level, obesity, fasting blood glucose level, and cigarette smoking [2].
  • Breast cancer in men is rare--among the risk factors that have been identified are a family history of breast cancer and evidence of androgen insufficiency [3].
  • In the study population, whose blood pressure before and during treatment was in a narrow range, and after other cardiovascular risk factors had been considered, the renin profile before treatment remained independently associated with the subsequent risk of myocardial infarction [4].
  • METHODS: A total of 9297 high-risk patients (55 years of age or older) who had evidence of vascular disease or diabetes plus one other cardiovascular risk factor and who were not known to have a low ejection fraction or heart failure were randomly assigned to receive ramipril (10 mg once per day orally) or matching placebo for a mean of five years [5].

Psychiatry related information on Risk Factors


High impact information on Risk Factors

  • Subjecting arterial endothelial cells to classical atherosclerosis risk factors leads to the expression of HSP60 that then may serve as a target for pre-existent cross-reactive antimicrobial HSP60 immunity or bona fide autoimmune reactions induced by biochemically altered autologous HSP60 [11].
  • European Consensus Statement on Lung Cancer: risk factors and prevention. Lung Cancer Panel [12].
  • The primary disease-associated variant (rs2076530; P(TDT) = 3 x 10(-6), P(case-control) = 1.1 x 10(-8); replication P(TDT) = 0.0018, P(case-control) = 1.8 x 10(-6)) represents a risk factor that is independent of variation in HLA-DRB1 [13].
  • These results indicate that variants in the LTA are risk factors for myocardial infraction and implicate LTA in the pathogenesis of the disorder [14].
  • RESULTS: The 50 infants randomly assigned to fluconazole and the 50 control infants were similar in terms of birth weight, gestational age at birth, and base-line risk factors for fungal infection [15].

Chemical compound and disease context of Risk Factors


Biological context of Risk Factors


Anatomical context of Risk Factors


Associations of Risk Factors with chemical compounds


Gene context of Risk Factors

  • The E*4 allele of APOE is a major risk factor for AD regardless of age of onset or family history [33].
  • Matching [corrected] of HLA-C alleles was a significant risk factor for relapse of leukemia (P=0.035) [34].
  • Mismatching of HLA-A, but not of HLA-C, alleles was an independent risk factor for death (P<0.001) [34].
  • Hypothesizing that receptors for apoE-containing lipoproteins act as a potential risk factor for AD, we performed an association study using a polymorphic triplet (CGG) repeat in the gene for the VLDL receptor (VLDL-R), a receptor for apoE-containing lipoproteins [35].
  • We examined whether family history of breast cancer remains a predictive risk factor for this disease after carrier status for BRCA1 and/or BRCA2 mutations is taken into consideration [36].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Risk Factors


  1. Vitamin E consumption and the risk of coronary heart disease in men. Rimm, E.B., Stampfer, M.J., Ascherio, A., Giovannucci, E., Colditz, G.A., Willett, W.C. N. Engl. J. Med. (1993) [Pubmed]
  2. Dietary potassium and stroke-associated mortality. A 12-year prospective population study. Khaw, K.T., Barrett-Connor, E. N. Engl. J. Med. (1987) [Pubmed]
  3. A germline mutation in the androgen receptor gene in two brothers with breast cancer and Reifenstein syndrome. Wooster, R., Mangion, J., Eeles, R., Smith, S., Dowsett, M., Averill, D., Barrett-Lee, P., Easton, D.F., Ponder, B.A., Stratton, M.R. Nat. Genet. (1992) [Pubmed]
  4. Association of the renin-sodium profile with the risk of myocardial infarction in patients with hypertension. Alderman, M.H., Madhavan, S., Ooi, W.L., Cohen, H., Sealey, J.E., Laragh, J.H. N. Engl. J. Med. (1991) [Pubmed]
  5. Effects of an angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor, ramipril, on cardiovascular events in high-risk patients. The Heart Outcomes Prevention Evaluation Study Investigators. Yusuf, S., Sleight, P., Pogue, J., Bosch, J., Davies, R., Dagenais, G. N. Engl. J. Med. (2000) [Pubmed]
  6. LDL receptor-related protein, a multifunctional ApoE receptor, binds secreted beta-amyloid precursor protein and mediates its degradation. Kounnas, M.Z., Moir, R.D., Rebeck, G.W., Bush, A.I., Argraves, W.S., Tanzi, R.E., Hyman, B.T., Strickland, D.K. Cell (1995) [Pubmed]
  7. Impaired feedback regulation of XBP1 as a genetic risk factor for bipolar disorder. Kakiuchi, C., Iwamoto, K., Ishiwata, M., Bundo, M., Kasahara, T., Kusumi, I., Tsujita, T., Okazaki, Y., Nanko, S., Kunugi, H., Sasaki, T., Kato, T. Nat. Genet. (2003) [Pubmed]
  8. Apolipoprotein E epsilon4 and the risk of dementia with stroke. A population-based investigation. Slooter, A.J., Tang, M.X., van Duijn, C.M., Stern, Y., Ott, A., Bell, K., Breteler, M.M., Van Broeckhoven, C., Tatemichi, T.K., Tycko, B., Hofman, A., Mayeux, R. JAMA (1997) [Pubmed]
  9. Depression and mortality in nursing homes. Rovner, B.W., German, P.S., Brant, L.J., Clark, R., Burton, L., Folstein, M.F. JAMA (1991) [Pubmed]
  10. Nonviral risk factors for hepatocellular carcinoma in a low-risk population, the non-Asians of Los Angeles County, California. Yu, M.C., Tong, M.J., Govindarajan, S., Henderson, B.E. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1991) [Pubmed]
  11. Autoimmune and inflammatory mechanisms in atherosclerosis. Wick, G., Knoflach, M., Xu, Q. Annu. Rev. Immunol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  12. European Consensus Statement on Lung Cancer: risk factors and prevention. Lung Cancer Panel. Biesalski, H.K., Bueno de Mesquita, B., Chesson, A., Chytil, F., Grimble, R., Hermus, R.J., Köhrle, J., Lotan, R., Norpoth, K., Pastorino, U., Thurnham, D. CA: a cancer journal for clinicians. (1998) [Pubmed]
  13. Sarcoidosis is associated with a truncating splice site mutation in BTNL2. Valentonyte, R., Hampe, J., Huse, K., Rosenstiel, P., Albrecht, M., Stenzel, A., Nagy, M., Gaede, K.I., Franke, A., Haesler, R., Koch, A., Lengauer, T., Seegert, D., Reiling, N., Ehlers, S., Schwinger, E., Platzer, M., Krawczak, M., Müller-Quernheim, J., Schürmann, M., Schreiber, S. Nat. Genet. (2005) [Pubmed]
  14. Functional SNPs in the lymphotoxin-alpha gene that are associated with susceptibility to myocardial infarction. Ozaki, K., Ohnishi, Y., Iida, A., Sekine, A., Yamada, R., Tsunoda, T., Sato, H., Sato, H., Hori, M., Nakamura, Y., Tanaka, T. Nat. Genet. (2002) [Pubmed]
  15. Fluconazole prophylaxis against fungal colonization and infection in preterm infants. Kaufman, D., Boyle, R., Hazen, K.C., Patrie, J.T., Robinson, M., Donowitz, L.G. N. Engl. J. Med. (2001) [Pubmed]
  16. Influence of age on secretion of cholesterol and synthesis of bile acids by the liver. Einarsson, K., Nilsell, K., Leijd, B., Angelin, B. N. Engl. J. Med. (1985) [Pubmed]
  17. Hyperhomocysteinemia as a risk factor for deep-vein thrombosis. den Heijer, M., Koster, T., Blom, H.J., Bos, G.M., Briet, E., Reitsma, P.H., Vandenbroucke, J.P., Rosendaal, F.R. N. Engl. J. Med. (1996) [Pubmed]
  18. Plasma triglyceride level and mortality from coronary heart disease. Criqui, M.H., Heiss, G., Cohn, R., Cowan, L.D., Suchindran, C.M., Bangdiwala, S., Kritchevsky, S., Jacobs, D.R., O'Grady, H.K., Davis, C.E. N. Engl. J. Med. (1993) [Pubmed]
  19. Association between plasma homocysteine concentrations and extracranial carotid-artery stenosis. Selhub, J., Jacques, P.F., Bostom, A.G., D'Agostino, R.B., Wilson, P.W., Belanger, A.J., O'Leary, D.H., Wolf, P.A., Schaefer, E.J., Rosenberg, I.H. N. Engl. J. Med. (1995) [Pubmed]
  20. Cocaine and tobacco use and the risk of spontaneous abortion. Ness, R.B., Grisso, J.A., Hirschinger, N., Markovic, N., Shaw, L.M., Day, N.L., Kline, J. N. Engl. J. Med. (1999) [Pubmed]
  21. Risk factors for cyclosporine-induced nephropathy in patients with autoimmune diseases. International Kidney Biopsy Registry of Cyclosporine in Autoimmune Diseases. Feutren, G., Mihatsch, M.J. N. Engl. J. Med. (1992) [Pubmed]
  22. Insulin resistance and insulin secretory dysfunction as precursors of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Prospective studies of Pima Indians. Lillioja, S., Mott, D.M., Spraul, M., Ferraro, R., Foley, J.E., Ravussin, E., Knowler, W.C., Bennett, P.H., Bogardus, C. N. Engl. J. Med. (1993) [Pubmed]
  23. Effect of risedronate on the risk of hip fracture in elderly women. Hip Intervention Program Study Group. McClung, M.R., Geusens, P., Miller, P.D., Zippel, H., Bensen, W.G., Roux, C., Adami, S., Fogelman, I., Diamond, T., Eastell, R., Meunier, P.J., Reginster, J.Y. N. Engl. J. Med. (2001) [Pubmed]
  24. Reduced graft rejection with good HLA-A and B matching in high-risk corneal transplantation. Sanfilippo, F., MacQueen, J.M., Vaughn, W.K., Foulks, G.N. N. Engl. J. Med. (1986) [Pubmed]
  25. Protective effect of apolipoprotein E type 2 allele for late onset Alzheimer disease. Corder, E.H., Saunders, A.M., Risch, N.J., Strittmatter, W.J., Schmechel, D.E., Gaskell, P.C., Rimmler, J.B., Locke, P.A., Conneally, P.M., Schmader, K.E. Nat. Genet. (1994) [Pubmed]
  26. A prospective study of the development of diabetes in relatives of patients with insulin-dependent diabetes. Riley, W.J., Maclaren, N.K., Krischer, J., Spillar, R.P., Silverstein, J.H., Schatz, D.A., Schwartz, S., Malone, J., Shah, S., Vadheim, C. N. Engl. J. Med. (1990) [Pubmed]
  27. Association of a leucine(7)-to-proline(7) polymorphism in the signal peptide of neuropeptide Y with high serum cholesterol and LDL cholesterol levels. Karvonen, M.K., Pesonen, U., Koulu, M., Niskanen, L., Laakso, M., Rissanen, A., Dekker, J.M., Hart, L.M., Valve, R., Uusitupa, M.I. Nat. Med. (1998) [Pubmed]
  28. Androgens and coronary artery disease. Wu, F.C., von Eckardstein, A. Endocr. Rev. (2003) [Pubmed]
  29. Effect of estrogen plus progestin on stroke in postmenopausal women: the Women's Health Initiative: a randomized trial. Wassertheil-Smoller, S., Hendrix, S.L., Limacher, M., Heiss, G., Kooperberg, C., Baird, A., Kotchen, T., Curb, J.D., Black, H., Rossouw, J.E., Aragaki, A., Safford, M., Stein, E., Laowattana, S., Mysiw, W.J. JAMA (2003) [Pubmed]
  30. Coronary risk factors and plaque morphology in men with coronary disease who died suddenly. Burke, A.P., Farb, A., Malcom, G.T., Liang, Y.H., Smialek, J., Virmani, R. N. Engl. J. Med. (1997) [Pubmed]
  31. High levels of coagulation factor XI as a risk factor for venous thrombosis. Meijers, J.C., Tekelenburg, W.L., Bouma, B.N., Bertina, R.M., Rosendaal, F.R. N. Engl. J. Med. (2000) [Pubmed]
  32. Routes of infection, viremia, and liver disease in blood donors found to have hepatitis C virus infection. Conry-Cantilena, C., VanRaden, M., Gibble, J., Melpolder, J., Shakil, A.O., Viladomiu, L., Cheung, L., DiBisceglie, A., Hoofnagle, J., Shih, J.W. N. Engl. J. Med. (1996) [Pubmed]
  33. APOE*4-associated Alzheimer's disease risk is modified by alpha 1-antichymotrypsin polymorphism. Kamboh, M.I., Sanghera, D.K., Ferrell, R.E., DeKosky, S.T. Nat. Genet. (1995) [Pubmed]
  34. Effect of matching of class I HLA alleles on clinical outcome after transplantation of hematopoietic stem cells from an unrelated donor. Japan Marrow Donor Program. Sasazuki, T., Juji, T., Morishima, Y., Kinukawa, N., Kashiwabara, H., Inoko, H., Yoshida, T., Kimura, A., Akaza, T., Kamikawaji, N., Kodera, Y., Takaku, F. N. Engl. J. Med. (1998) [Pubmed]
  35. Genetic association of the very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) receptor gene with sporadic Alzheimer's disease. Okuizumi, K., Onodera, O., Namba, Y., Ikeda, K., Yamamoto, T., Seki, K., Ueki, A., Nanko, S., Tanaka, H., Takahashi, H., Oyanagi, K., Mizusawa, H., Kanazawa, I., Tsuji, S. Nat. Genet. (1995) [Pubmed]
  36. Effect of BRCA1 and BRCA2 on the association between breast cancer risk and family history. Claus, E.B., Schildkraut, J., Iversen, E.S., Berry, D., Parmigiani, G. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1998) [Pubmed]
  37. An investigation of the cause of the eosinophilia-myalgia syndrome associated with tryptophan use. Belongia, E.A., Hedberg, C.W., Gleich, G.J., White, K.E., Mayeno, A.N., Loegering, D.A., Dunnette, S.L., Pirie, P.L., MacDonald, K.L., Osterholm, M.T. N. Engl. J. Med. (1990) [Pubmed]
  38. Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (co-trimoxazole) for the prevention of relapses of Wegener's granulomatosis. Dutch Co-Trimoxazole Wegener Study Group. Stegeman, C.A., Tervaert, J.W., de Jong, P.E., Kallenberg, C.G. N. Engl. J. Med. (1996) [Pubmed]
  39. The effect of bisoprolol on perioperative mortality and myocardial infarction in high-risk patients undergoing vascular surgery. Dutch Echocardiographic Cardiac Risk Evaluation Applying Stress Echocardiography Study Group. Poldermans, D., Boersma, E., Bax, J.J., Thomson, I.R., van de Ven, L.L., Blankensteijn, J.D., Baars, H.F., Yo, T.I., Trocino, G., Vigna, C., Roelandt, J.R., van Urk, H. N. Engl. J. Med. (1999) [Pubmed]
  40. Female sex and drug dose as risk factors for late cardiotoxic effects of doxorubicin therapy for childhood cancer. Lipshultz, S.E., Lipsitz, S.R., Mone, S.M., Goorin, A.M., Sallan, S.E., Sanders, S.P., Orav, E.J., Gelber, R.D., Colan, S.D. N. Engl. J. Med. (1995) [Pubmed]
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