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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Cell death of osteocytes occurs in rat alveolar bone during experimental tooth movement.

The purpose of this study was to examine the morphological changes in alveolar bone osteocytes on the pressure side during experimental tooth movement, using quantitative evaluation on hematoxylin and eosin-stained sections, the TUNEL method, confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), and transmission electron microscopy. In 8-week-old Wistar rats, the left first molar was forced to move mesially with an average load of 10 g by a nickel-titanium superelastic wire. After 6 hours, nuclear condensation and fragmentation appeared in osteocytes adjacent to the hyalinized periodontal ligament (PDL). These cells showed TUNEL-positive reaction. The number of osteocytes with apoptosis progressively increased up to 1 day. At 1 and 2 days, cytoplasmic and nuclear destruction and distribution within the lacunae occurred and increased up to 4 days. The proportion of necrotic osteocytes and near empty lacunae peaked at 2 and 4 days, respectively. At 7 days, necrotic osteocyte and empty lacunae numbers returned to the level of control bone, probably due to resorption of the alveolar bone containing apoptotic and necrotic osteocytes. Ultrastructually, the osteocytes showed apoptotic morphology at 6 and 12 hours and 1 day; at 2 and 4 days, several osteocytes exhibited characteristics of necrosis and destructive images of the surrounding bone matrix, which resulted in enlargement of the lacunae. The present results demonstrate that osteocytes in alveolar bone adjacent to the hyalinized PDL underwent cell death via apoptosis and "secondary necrosis" during orthodontic tooth movement, which may be associated with the subsequent bone resorption.[1]


  1. Cell death of osteocytes occurs in rat alveolar bone during experimental tooth movement. Hamaya, M., Mizoguchi, I., Sakakura, Y., Yajima, T., Abiko, Y. Calcif. Tissue Int. (2002) [Pubmed]
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