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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Interaction of the myogenic determination factor myogenin with E12 and a DNA target: mechanism and kinetics.

The myogenic determination factors MyoD, myogenin, myf5, and MRF4 are members of the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) family of transcription factors and crucial agents of myogenesis. The bHLH regions of these proteins enable them to dimerize with E proteins, another class of the bHLH family, and to bind a specific DNA element known as an E box (CANNTG consensus sequence), which results in the activation of muscle-specific gene expression. As a model for such assembly of the myogenic determination factor/E protein-DNA ternary complex, we have studied the physiologically relevant association of myogenin, E12, and the 3' E box of the acetylcholine receptor (AChR) alpha-subunit gene enhancer. Using the technique of electrophoretic mobility shift assay combined with order-of-addition and time-course experiments, we find that heterodimerization of myogenin with E12 occurs prior to DNA-binding. In addition, we deduce the dissociation (Kd) and rate (k) constants for each step in the formation of the myogenin/E12-DNA ternary complex. Kinetic simulations indicate that at 37 degrees C myogenin and E12 heterodimerize with a Kd of 36 microM (k(on) of 573 M(-1) x s(-1) and k(off )of 0.0205 x s(-1)), and that subsequently the heterodimer binds the AChR alpha-subunit gene enhancer 3' E box with a Kd of 8.8 nM (with possible k(on) and k(off) values ranging from 1.0x10(8) to 14.1x10(8) M(-1) x s(-1), and 0.875 to 12.3 s(-1), respectively).[1]


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