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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Improved sample extraction and clean-up for the GC-MS determination of BADGE and BFDGE in vegetable oil.

A straightforward method was established for the determination of migration contaminants in olive oil with a special focus on the two can-coating migration compounds bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE) and bisphenol F diglycidyl ether (BFDGE). The preferred sample preparation was a single liquid-liquid extraction of compounds from the oil into 20% (v/v) methanol in acetonitrile, followed by clean-up with solid-phase extraction on aminopropyl bonded to silica. This purification procedure selectively removed all free fatty acids from the extracts without removing phenolic compounds of interest. The solid-phase extraction columns were used many times by implementing a procedure of washing out the strongly retained fatty acids with 2% acetic acid in methanol. Gas chromatography coupled with full scan (m/z 33-700) electron ionization mass spectrometry was used for the determination of several model compounds in olive oil samples. BADGE and BFDGE could be determined in the 0.05-2 mg kg(-1) range in oil samples with a relative SD of <6% (six replicates). The method was used in an enforcement campaign for the Norwegian Food Control Authority to analyse vegetable oil samples from canned fish-in-oil.[1]


  1. Improved sample extraction and clean-up for the GC-MS determination of BADGE and BFDGE in vegetable oil. Brede, C., Skjevrak, I., Herikstad, H., Anensen, E., Austvoll, R., Hemmingsen, T. Food additives and contaminants. (2002) [Pubmed]
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