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Chemical Compound Review

Vinegar     ethanoic acid

Synonyms: Acetasol, Ethylate, Somatrel, Azijnzuur, acetate, ...
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Disease relevance of acetic acid


Psychiatry related information on acetic acid

  • Methods for its preparation use ferriprotoporphyrin IX at acid pH in the presence of acetic acid at different concentrations and degrees of ionization, elevated temperatures and long reaction times [6].
  • Acetic acid plays a crucial role in the organoleptic balance of many fermented products [7].
  • After 15 h of food deprivation, they were either killed immediately or given 2 g of a diet containing 0 (control), 0.1, 0.2 or 0.4 g acetic acid/100 g diet for 2 h [8].
  • The effect of ascorbic acid and ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid (EDTA) in the treatment of manic-depressive psychosis was compared, using double-blind procedures, with recognized treatment regimes [9].
  • Antinociception was performed using the hot-plate and acetic acid abdominal constriction tests in mice, and the paw pressure test in rats, while prevention of induced amnesia was evaluated in mice using the passive-avoidance test [10].

High impact information on acetic acid

  • INTERVENTION: Women self-collected a vaginal swab for HPV testing in the clinic and were then screened using 4 different tests: Papanicolaou smear, direct visual inspection of the cervix after the application of 5% acetic acid, cervicography, and HPV DNA testing of a clinician-obtained cervical sample [11].
  • The effector T cells provided excellent helper activity for in vitro antibody responses of 4-hydroxy-5-iodo-nitrophenyl acetic acid-primed B cells with the production principally of the immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) and IgM isotypes, small quantities of IgG3, and no detectable IgG2a, or IgG2b [12].
  • T-cell-deficient mice, either anti-thymocyte serum treated or nude mice, were immunized with hapten (4-hydroxy-3,5-dinitrophenyl acetic acid, NNP) conjugates of syngeneic, allogeneic, or xenogeneic erythrocytes [13].
  • The serotype antigen complex was isolated by mild extraction of intact organisms in 200 mM lithium acetate buffer, pH 6.0 with 10 mM EDTA for 2 h at 45 degrees C. The extract was fractionated on Sepharose 6B and partially purified by precipitation at pH 4.2 by addition of 10% (vol/vol) acetic acid [14].
  • We administered 2 exogenous agents, dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) and acetic acid, to assess the susceptibility of mITF/DT-A transgenic mice to colonic injury [15].

Chemical compound and disease context of acetic acid


Biological context of acetic acid


Anatomical context of acetic acid

  • Immunomodulation of natural killer cell activity by flavone acetic acid: occurrence via induction of interferon alpha/beta [26].
  • The fractions tested were (a) intact parenchyma, (b) acidic structural glycoproteins (ASG) extracted from lung parenchyma with 0.3 M acetic acid, and (c) isolated alveolar basement membrane (ABM) [27].
  • All of these metabolities were made in significantly greater quantities by mucosa from acetic acid-treated rats than by controls [19].
  • Furthermore, NPC 15669 (10 mg/kg) administered 7 hours after acetic acid and evaluated 24 hours after acetic acid administration significantly attenuated neutrophil influx (70% inhibition of MPO accumulation), whereas 5-ASA (100 mg/kg) displayed no therapeutic effects [28].
  • It is concluded that exposure of the epithelium to acetic acid promotes the transepithelial movement of casein leading to enhanced mast cell activation and mucosal injury [29].

Associations of acetic acid with other chemical compounds


Gene context of acetic acid

  • Reduction in the number of writhes of the COX-1-null and COX-1-deficient heterozygotes may be due to low levels of COX-1 at the site of stimulation with acetic acid [36].
  • In contrast, residues 16-19 and 31-34 were not only uniformly inaccessible to alkylation in the fibril state, but their modification with the negatively charged carboxymethyl group in monomeric Abeta also destabilized fibril elongation, confirming other data showing that these segments are likely packed into a hydrophobic amyloid core [37].
  • Furthermore it was found that unacetylated Tfs1p expressed in nat3Delta showed an approximately 100-fold decrease in CPY inhibition compared with the acetylated form, indicating that the N-terminal acetyl group is essential for CPY inhibition by Tfs1p [38].
  • An apparent Mr = 16,000 RLPG/Ser29 variant of IGF-II was also identified in the acetic acid extracts [39].
  • The inability of S. cerevisiae mutant strains (lacking mitochondrial DNA, heme lyase, or ATPase) to undergo acetic acid-induced PCD and in the ATPase mutant (knockout in ATP10) the absence of CytC release provides further evidence that the process is mediated by a mitochondria-dependent apoptotic pathway [40].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of acetic acid

  • The peptide is inactivated by heating above 60 degrees C, but recovers full catalytic activity upon cooling and lyophilization from acetic acid [41].
  • When tissue extract was subjected to Sephadex G-50 gel filtration in 0.2 N acetic acid, the major portion of immunoreactive NSN emerged in the fractions corresponding to the molecular size of 10,000 [42].
  • Immunoreactive XP (iXP) was found by radioimmunoassay in extracts of both the antrum and body of the stomach prepared with acid/acetone or acetic acid [43].
  • Tissue fixation in 95% ethanol 1% acetic acid (EA) resulted in an enhanced and defined cytoplasmic staining of the normal colon cell lining the mucosal surface and upper levels of the glandular crypts [44].
  • Colitis was induced in rats by intracolonic injection of acetic acid or intraperitoneal injection of mitomycin C [45].


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  14. The serological classification of Neisseria gonorrhoeae. I. Isolation of the outer membrane complex responsible for serotypic specificity. Johnston, K.H., Holmes, K.K., Gotschlich, E.C. J. Exp. Med. (1976) [Pubmed]
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  17. Effect of indomethacin on gastric mucosal blood flow around acetic acid-induced gastric ulcers in rats. Hirose, H., Takeuchi, K., Okabe, S. Gastroenterology (1991) [Pubmed]
  18. Colonic motor activity in acute colitis in conscious dogs. Sethi, A.K., Sarna, S.K. Gastroenterology (1991) [Pubmed]
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  21. Platelet-activating factor (PAF) stimulates the production of PAF acetylhydrolase by the human hepatoma cell line, HepG2. Satoh, K., Imaizumi, T., Kawamura, Y., Yoshida, H., Hiramoto, M., Takamatsu, S., Takamatsu, M. J. Clin. Invest. (1991) [Pubmed]
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  30. Heterogeneity of plasma glucagon. Circulating components in normal subjects and patients with chronic renal failure. Kuku, S.F., Jaspan, J.B., Emmanouel, D.S., Zeidler, A., Katz, A.I., Rubenstein, A.H. J. Clin. Invest. (1976) [Pubmed]
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