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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Nepsilon-(Carboxymethyl)lysine induces gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase in RAW264.7 cells.

Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) play an important role in the development of angiopathy in diabetes mellitus and atherosclerosis. Here, we show that adducts of N(epsilon)-(carboxymethyl)lysine (CML), a major AGE, and bovine serum albumin (CML-BSA) stimulated gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase (gamma-GCS), which is a key enzyme of glutathione (GSH) synthesis, in RAW264.7 mouse macrophage-like cells. CML-BSA stimulated the expression of gamma-GCS heavy subunit (h) time- and dose-dependently and concomitantly increased GSH levels. CML-BSA also stimulated DNA-binding activity of activator protein-1 (AP-1) within 3h, but the stimulatory effect decreased in 5h, and nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) with a peak activity at 1h and the stimulatory effect diminished in 3h. Studies of luciferase activity of the gamma-GCSh promoter showed that deletion and mutagenesis of the AP-1-site abolished CML-BSA-induced up-regulation, while that of NF-kappaB-site did not affect CML-BSA-induced activity. CML-BSA also stimulated the activity of protein kinase C, Ras/Raf-1, and MEK/ERK1/2. Inhibition of ERK1/2 abolished CML-BSA- stimulated AP-1 DNA-binding activity and gamma-GCSh mRNA expression. Our results suggest that induction of gamma-GCS by CML adducts seems to increase the defense potential of cells against oxidative stress produced during glycation processes.[1]


  1. Nepsilon-(Carboxymethyl)lysine induces gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase in RAW264.7 cells. Miyahara, Y., Ikeda, S., Muroya, T., Yasuoka, C., Urata, Y., Horiuchi, S., Kohno, S., Kondo, T. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (2002) [Pubmed]
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