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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Midkine inhibits apoptosis via extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK) activation in PC12 cells.

Midkine ( MK) is a new member of the family of heparin-binding neurotrophic factors. MK has several important biological effects and plays an important role in the development and survival of neurons. The mechanism by which MK exerts its neurotrophic actions, however has not been sufficiently clarified. To understand the intracellular pathway activated by MK, we established an apoptosis-induction system with the neuronal cell line PC12 and studied the involvement of the mitogen-activated protein kinase ( MAPK) cascade in neuroprotective actions of MK. We demonstrate here that MK rescued PC12 cells from apoptosis induced by serum deprivation in a dose-dependent manner. MK also activated extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1 and ERK2), which are well known as signal transducer acting downstream several receptors. PD98059, an inhibitor of MAPK kinase (MAPKK), inhibited ERK activation and also prevented the trophic effect of MK. These results indicate that MK exerts its neuroprotective actions mainly via ERK activation.[1]


  1. Midkine inhibits apoptosis via extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK) activation in PC12 cells. Owada, K., Sanjyo, N., Kobayashi, T., Kamata, T., Mizusawa, H., Muramatsu, H., Muramatsu, T., Michikawa, M. J. Med. Dent. Sci. (1999) [Pubmed]
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