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Gene Review

Mdk  -  midkine

Rattus norvegicus

Synonyms: MK, Midkine
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Disease relevance of Mdk


Psychiatry related information on Mdk


High impact information on Mdk


Chemical compound and disease context of Mdk


Biological context of Mdk


Anatomical context of Mdk


Associations of Mdk with chemical compounds

  • MK is a heparin-binding growth factor that occurs as a product of a retinoic acid-inducible gene, and has a molecular mass of 13 kDa [13].
  • In utero exposure to vitamin A deficiency did not modify the specific spatial and temporal expression pattern of MK gene in the metanephros, although a decrease in mRNA expression occurred [7].
  • Overexpression of midkine in lung tumors induced by N-nitrosobis(2-hydroxypropyl)amine in rats and its increase with progression [3].
  • Rebamipide stimulated both midkine and RPTP-beta expression in rat stomach and RGM1 cells [15].
  • Midkine in the progression of rat N-nitroso-N-methylurea-induced mammary tumors [9].

Regulatory relationships of Mdk


Other interactions of Mdk


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Mdk


  1. Retinoids regulate the repairing process of the podocytes in puromycin aminonucleoside-induced nephrotic rats. Suzuki, A., Ito, T., Imai, E., Yamato, M., Iwatani, H., Kawachi, H., Hori, M. J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  2. Monoclonal antibody to human midkine reveals increased midkine expression in human brain tumors. Kato, S., Ishihara, K., Shinozawa, T., Yamaguchi, H., Asano, Y., Saito, M., Kato, M., Terada, T., Awaya, A., Hirano, A., Dickson, D.W., Yen, S.H., Ohama, E. J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  3. Overexpression of midkine in lung tumors induced by N-nitrosobis(2-hydroxypropyl)amine in rats and its increase with progression. Sakitani, H., Tsutsumi, M., Kadomatsu, K., Ikematsu, S., Takahama, M., Iki, K., Tsujiuchi, T., Muramatsu, T., Sakuma, S., Sakaki, T., Konishi, Y. Carcinogenesis (1999) [Pubmed]
  4. Inhibition of beta-amyloid cytotoxicity by midkine. Yu, G.S., Hu, J., Nakagawa, H. Neurosci. Lett. (1998) [Pubmed]
  5. HB-GAM (heparin-binding growth-associated molecule) and heparin-type glycans in the development and plasticity of neuron-target contacts. Rauvala, H., Peng, H.B. Prog. Neurobiol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  6. Human ryudocan from endothelium-like cells binds basic fibroblast growth factor, midkine, and tissue factor pathway inhibitor. Kojima, T., Katsumi, A., Yamazaki, T., Muramatsu, T., Nagasaka, T., Ohsumi, K., Saito, H. J. Biol. Chem. (1996) [Pubmed]
  7. Midkine is involved in kidney development and in its regulation by retinoids. Vilar, J., Lalou, C., Duong, V.H., Charrin, S., Hardouin, S., Raulais, D., Merlet-Bénichou, C., Leliévre-Pégorier, M. J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  8. Rescue of photoreceptors from the damaging effects of constant light by midkine, a retinoic acid-responsive gene product. Unoki, K., Ohba, N., Arimura, H., Muramatsu, H., Muramatsu, T. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (1994) [Pubmed]
  9. Midkine in the progression of rat N-nitroso-N-methylurea-induced mammary tumors. Chen, Y., McKenzie, K.E., Aldaz, C.M., Sukumar, S. Mol. Carcinog. (1996) [Pubmed]
  10. Myocardial infarction induces expression of midkine, a heparin-binding growth factor with reparative activity. Obama, H., Biro, S., Tashiro, T., Tsutsui, J., Ozawa, M., Yoshida, H., Tanaka, H., Muramatsu, T. Anticancer Res. (1998) [Pubmed]
  11. Midkine induces histamine release from mast cells and the immediate cutaneous response. Hiramatsu, K., Yoshida, H., Kimura, T., Takagi, K. Biochem. Mol. Biol. Int. (1998) [Pubmed]
  12. Midkine is expressed early in rat fetal adrenal development. Dewing, P., Ching, S.T., Zhang, Y.H., Huang, B.L., Peirce, R.M., McCabe, E.R., Vilain, E. Mol. Genet. Metab. (2000) [Pubmed]
  13. Distinctive expression of midkine in the repair period of rat brain during neurogenesis: immunohistochemical and immunoelectron microscopic observations. Kikuchi-Horie, K., Kawakami, E., Kamata, M., Wada, M., Hu, J.G., Nakagawa, H., Ohara, K., Watabe, K., Oyanagi, K. J. Neurosci. Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  14. Induction of midkine expression in reactive astrocytes following rat transient forebrain ischemia. Mochizuki, R., Takeda, A., Sato, N., Kimpara, T., Onodera, H., Itoyama, Y., Muramatsu, T. Exp. Neurol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  15. Expression of midkine and receptor-like protein tyrosine phosphatase (RPTP)-beta genes in the rat stomach and the influence of rebamipide. Yuki, T., Ishihara, S., Rumi, M., Ortega-Cava Cesar, F., Kadowaki, Y., Kazumori, H., Yuki, M., Wada, T., Miyaoka, Y., Yoshino, N., Kinoshita, Y. Aliment. Pharmacol. Ther. (2003) [Pubmed]
  16. Midkine expression in rat spinal motor neurons following sciatic nerve injury. Sakakima, H., Yoshida, Y., Kadomatsu, K., Yuzawa, Y., Matsuo, S., Muramatsu, T. Brain Res. Dev. Brain Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  17. Midkine inhibits apoptosis via extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK) activation in PC12 cells. Owada, K., Sanjyo, N., Kobayashi, T., Kamata, T., Mizusawa, H., Muramatsu, H., Muramatsu, T., Michikawa, M. J. Med. Dent. Sci. (1999) [Pubmed]
  18. Transglutaminase C in cerebellar granule neurons: regulation and localization of substrate cross-linking. Perry, M.J., Mahoney, S.A., Haynes, L.W. Neuroscience (1995) [Pubmed]
  19. Localization of pleiotrophin and midkine in the postnatal developing cerebellum. Matsumoto, K., Wanaka, A., Mori, T., Taguchi, A., Ishii, N., Muramatsu, H., Muramatsu, T., Tohyama, M. Neurosci. Lett. (1994) [Pubmed]
  20. Traumatic injury-induced midkine expression in the adult rat spinal cord during the early stage. Sakakima, H., Yoshida, Y., Muramatsu, T., Yone, K., Goto, M., Ijiri, K., Izumo, S. J. Neurotrauma (2004) [Pubmed]
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