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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review


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Disease relevance of Transducers


Psychiatry related information on Transducers


High impact information on Transducers

  • The SOCS proteins also appear to target signal transducers for proteasomal destruction [9].
  • The pathway uses a novel mechanism in which cytosolic latent transcription factors, known as signal transducers and activators of transcription (STATs), are tyrosine phosphorylated by Janus family tyrosine kinases (Jaks), allowing STAT protein dimerization and nuclear translocation [10].
  • Using a functional definition of signaling elements, we discuss the current knowledge of signaling events from the BCR and suggest the existence of an as-yet-unknown BCR transducer complex [11].
  • Characterization of the ability of IFN-alpha to rapidly induce new genes has led to the identification of a new signaling paradigm, the JAK-STAT (Signal Transducers and Activators of Transcription) pathway [12].
  • Depending on the specific serine residues dephosphorylated by PAPP5, phytochrome stability and affinity for a downstream signal transducer, NDPK2, were enhanced [13].

Chemical compound and disease context of Transducers


Biological context of Transducers


Anatomical context of Transducers


Associations of Transducers with chemical compounds


Gene context of Transducers

  • TRADD is a TNFR1-associated signal transducer that is involved in activating both pathways [30].
  • TRAF6 is a signal transducer in the NF-kappaB pathway that activates IkappaB kinase (IKK) in response to proinflammatory cytokines [31].
  • Two other signal transducers, RIP and TRAF2, mediate both JNK and NF-kappaB activation [18].
  • Two of these signal transducers, TRAF1 and TRAF2, were isolated and characterized previously [32].
  • Previously known as the ultimate recipients of cdk regulatory signals, E2F4/5 and p107 act here as transducers of TGFbeta receptor signals upstream of cdk [33].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Transducers


  1. Sensory transducers of E. coli are composed of discrete structural and functional domains. Krikos, A., Mutoh, N., Boyd, A., Simon, M.I. Cell (1983) [Pubmed]
  2. Hyperactivation of Stat3 in gp130 mutant mice promotes gastric hyperproliferation and desensitizes TGF-beta signaling. Jenkins, B.J., Grail, D., Nheu, T., Najdovska, M., Wang, B., Waring, P., Inglese, M., McLoughlin, R.M., Jones, S.A., Topley, N., Baumann, H., Judd, L.M., Giraud, A.S., Boussioutas, A., Zhu, H.J., Ernst, M. Nat. Med. (2005) [Pubmed]
  3. The tumor suppressor gene Smad4/Dpc4 is required for gastrulation and later for anterior development of the mouse embryo. Sirard, C., de la Pompa, J.L., Elia, A., Itie, A., Mirtsos, C., Cheung, A., Hahn, S., Wakeham, A., Schwartz, L., Kern, S.E., Rossant, J., Mak, T.W. Genes Dev. (1998) [Pubmed]
  4. Pivotal role of signal transducer and activator of transcription (Stat)4 and Stat6 in the innate immune response during sepsis. Matsukawa, A., Kaplan, M.H., Hogaboam, C.M., Lukacs, N.W., Kunkel, S.L. J. Exp. Med. (2001) [Pubmed]
  5. Defective gp130-mediated signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) signaling results in degenerative joint disease, gastrointestinal ulceration, and failure of uterine implantation. Ernst, M., Inglese, M., Waring, P., Campbell, I.K., Bao, S., Clay, F.J., Alexander, W.S., Wicks, I.P., Tarlinton, D.M., Novak, U., Heath, J.K., Dunn, A.R. J. Exp. Med. (2001) [Pubmed]
  6. Lithium: a molecular transducer of mood-stabilization in the treatment of bipolar disorder. Manji, H.K., Lenox, R.H. Neuropsychopharmacology (1998) [Pubmed]
  7. Quinoprotein glucose dehydrogenase modified thick-film electrodes for the amperometric detection of phenolic compounds in flow injection analysis. Rose, A., Scheller, F.W., Wollenberger, U., Pfeiffer, D. Fresenius' journal of analytical chemistry. (2001) [Pubmed]
  8. Effect of synthetic motilin on gastric motor activity in conscious dogs. Ito, Z., Takeuchi, S., Aizawa, I., Takayanagi, R. The American journal of digestive diseases. (1977) [Pubmed]
  9. The role of suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS) proteins in regulation of the immune response. Alexander, W.S., Hilton, D.J. Annu. Rev. Immunol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  10. Jaks and STATs: biological implications. Leonard, W.J., O'Shea, J.J. Annu. Rev. Immunol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  11. Initiation and processing of signals from the B cell antigen receptor. Reth, M., Wienands, J. Annu. Rev. Immunol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  12. Transcriptional responses to polypeptide ligands: the JAK-STAT pathway. Schindler, C., Darnell, J.E. Annu. Rev. Biochem. (1995) [Pubmed]
  13. Phytochrome-specific type 5 phosphatase controls light signal flux by enhancing phytochrome stability and affinity for a signal transducer. Ryu, J.S., Kim, J.I., Kunkel, T., Kim, B.C., Cho, D.S., Hong, S.H., Kim, S.H., Fernández, A.P., Kim, Y., Alonso, J.M., Ecker, J.R., Nagy, F., Lim, P.O., Song, P.S., Schäfer, E., Nam, H.G. Cell (2005) [Pubmed]
  14. Structure of the serine chemoreceptor in Escherichia coli. Boyd, A., Kendall, K., Simon, M.I. Nature (1983) [Pubmed]
  15. B lymphocytes from patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia contain signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 1 and STAT3 constitutively phosphorylated on serine residues. Frank, D.A., Mahajan, S., Ritz, J. J. Clin. Invest. (1997) [Pubmed]
  16. Domain organization and flavin adenine dinucleotide-binding determinants in the aerotaxis signal transducer Aer of Escherichia coli. Bibikov, S.I., Barnes, L.A., Gitin, Y., Parkinson, J.S. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2000) [Pubmed]
  17. Direct interaction of Jak1 and v-Abl is required for v-Abl-induced activation of STATs and proliferation. Danial, N.N., Losman, J.A., Lu, T., Yip, N., Krishnan, K., Krolewski, J., Goff, S.P., Wang, J.Y., Rothman, P.B. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  18. Dissection of TNF receptor 1 effector functions: JNK activation is not linked to apoptosis while NF-kappaB activation prevents cell death. Liu, Z.G., Hsu, H., Goeddel, D.V., Karin, M. Cell (1996) [Pubmed]
  19. Caenorhabditis elegans ABL-1 antagonizes p53-mediated germline apoptosis after ionizing irradiation. Deng, X., Hofmann, E.R., Villanueva, A., Hobert, O., Capodieci, P., Veach, D.R., Yin, X., Campodonico, L., Glekas, A., Cordon-Cardo, C., Clarkson, B., Bornmann, W.G., Fuks, Z., Hengartner, M.O., Kolesnick, R. Nat. Genet. (2004) [Pubmed]
  20. Crystal structure of a mammalian phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C delta. Essen, L.O., Perisic, O., Cheung, R., Katan, M., Williams, R.L. Nature (1996) [Pubmed]
  21. Calmodulin-induced early-onset diabetes in transgenic mice. Epstein, P.N., Overbeek, P.A., Means, A.R. Cell (1989) [Pubmed]
  22. Blockade of interleukin 6 trans signaling suppresses T-cell resistance against apoptosis in chronic intestinal inflammation: evidence in crohn disease and experimental colitis in vivo. Atreya, R., Mudter, J., Finotto, S., Müllberg, J., Jostock, T., Wirtz, S., Schütz, M., Bartsch, B., Holtmann, M., Becker, C., Strand, D., Czaja, J., Schlaak, J.F., Lehr, H.A., Autschbach, F., Schürmann, G., Nishimoto, N., Yoshizaki, K., Ito, H., Kishimoto, T., Galle, P.R., Rose-John, S., Neurath, M.F. Nat. Med. (2000) [Pubmed]
  23. TGF-beta signalling from cell membrane to nucleus through SMAD proteins. Heldin, C.H., Miyazono, K., ten Dijke, P. Nature (1997) [Pubmed]
  24. STAT-3 activation is required for normal G-CSF-dependent proliferation and granulocytic differentiation. McLemore, M.L., Grewal, S., Liu, F., Archambault, A., Poursine-Laurent, J., Haug, J., Link, D.C. Immunity (2001) [Pubmed]
  25. CpG directly induces T-bet expression and inhibits IgG1 and IgE switching in B cells. Liu, N., Ohnishi, N., Ni, L., Akira, S., Bacon, K.B. Nat. Immunol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  26. Nutrient-regulated protein kinases in budding yeast. Wilson, W.A., Roach, P.J. Cell (2002) [Pubmed]
  27. A thiol peroxidase is an H2O2 receptor and redox-transducer in gene activation. Delaunay, A., Pflieger, D., Barrault, M.B., Vinh, J., Toledano, M.B. Cell (2002) [Pubmed]
  28. Direct stimulation of Jak/STAT pathway by the angiotensin II AT1 receptor. Marrero, M.B., Schieffer, B., Paxton, W.G., Heerdt, L., Berk, B.C., Delafontaine, P., Bernstein, K.E. Nature (1995) [Pubmed]
  29. The G protein G alpha12 stimulates Bruton's tyrosine kinase and a rasGAP through a conserved PH/BM domain. Jiang, Y., Ma, W., Wan, Y., Kozasa, T., Hattori, S., Huang, X.Y. Nature (1998) [Pubmed]
  30. TRADD-TRAF2 and TRADD-FADD interactions define two distinct TNF receptor 1 signal transduction pathways. Hsu, H., Shu, H.B., Pan, M.G., Goeddel, D.V. Cell (1996) [Pubmed]
  31. Activation of the IkappaB kinase complex by TRAF6 requires a dimeric ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme complex and a unique polyubiquitin chain. Deng, L., Wang, C., Spencer, E., Yang, L., Braun, A., You, J., Slaughter, C., Pickart, C., Chen, Z.J. Cell (2000) [Pubmed]
  32. The TNFR2-TRAF signaling complex contains two novel proteins related to baculoviral inhibitor of apoptosis proteins. Rothe, M., Pan, M.G., Henzel, W.J., Ayres, T.M., Goeddel, D.V. Cell (1995) [Pubmed]
  33. E2F4/5 and p107 as Smad cofactors linking the TGFbeta receptor to c-myc repression. Chen, C.R., Kang, Y., Siegel, P.M., Massagué, J. Cell (2002) [Pubmed]
  34. Molecular cloning and expression of an IL-6 signal transducer, gp130. Hibi, M., Murakami, M., Saito, M., Hirano, T., Taga, T., Kishimoto, T. Cell (1990) [Pubmed]
  35. Lipopolysaccharide preconditioning and cross-tolerance: the induction of protective mechanisms for rat intestinal ileus. Schwarz, N.T., Engel, B., Eskandari, M.K., Kalff, J.C., Grandis, J.R., Bauer, A.J. Gastroenterology (2002) [Pubmed]
  36. Interleukin-2 activation of STAT5 requires the convergent action of tyrosine kinases and a serine/threonine kinase pathway distinct from the Raf1/ERK2 MAP kinase pathway. Beadling, C., Ng, J., Babbage, J.W., Cantrell, D.A. EMBO J. (1996) [Pubmed]
  37. Jasmonic acid is a signal transducer in elicitor-induced plant cell cultures. Gundlach, H., Müller, M.J., Kutchan, T.M., Zenk, M.H. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1992) [Pubmed]
  38. Ligation of membrane immunoglobulin leads to inactivation of the signal-transducing ability of membrane immunoglobulin, CD19, CD21, and B-cell gp95. Rijkers, G.T., Griffioen, A.W., Zegers, B.J., Cambier, J.C. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1990) [Pubmed]
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