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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Co-surfactant of ethoxylated sorbitan ester and sorbitan monooleate for enhanced flushing of tetrachloroethylene.

This work evaluated the flushing efficiency of tetrachloroethylene (PCE) using the co-surfactant of non-ionic ethoxylated sorbitan ester (Tween) and oilphilic sorbitan monooleate (Span 80), which formed more hydrophobic micelles than Tween alone. The flushing efficiency was evaluated with laboratory columns filled with silica and aquifer sand. Results from column flushing were also compared to those of batch solubility experiments to study the removal mechanism by the co-surfactant solution. Compared to Tween 80 alone, the molar solubilization ratio and the affinity between the micelles and PCE increased 84% and 90%, respectively, by the co-surfactant solution of Tween 80 and Span 80 mixed at a 4:1 ratio. Flushing with 1% Tween 80 solution yielded a steady PCE recovery of 7% for both silica and aquifer sand in each pore volume (PV). Flushing with co-surfactant of 1% Tween 80 + Span 80 (4:1) further increased PCE recovery to 10% for silica sand and 13% for aquifer sand per PV. A comparison of results from column flushing and batch solubility tests indicated that the primary flushing mechanism of PCE using the co-surfactant solution of Tween 80 + Span 80 (4:1) was micellar solubilization.[1]


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