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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Role of antioxidants in the O-hydroxyethyl-D-(Ser)8-cyclosporine A (SDZ IMM125)-induced apoptosis in rat hepatocytes.

The mechanisms underlying the apoptotic activity of the immunosuppressive drug cyclosporine A and its O-hydroxyethyl-D-(Ser)(8)-derivative SDZ IMM125 in rat hepatocytes are not yet fully understood. It was the purpose of the present study to investigate the role of anti- and pro-oxidants and of caspase-3 and intracellular Ca(2+) in SDZ IMM125-induced apoptosis in rat hepatocytes. SDZ IMM125 induced an increase in chromatin condensation and fragmentation, and the activation of caspase-3. Supplementing the cell cultures with the antioxidants, D,L-alpha-tocopherol-polyethylene-glycol-1000-succinate, ascorbic acid, and the reducing agent, dithiothreitol, significantly inhibited the SDZ IMM125-mediated increase in chromatin condensation and fragmentation, and caspase-3 activity. D,L-alpha-tocopherol-polyethylene-glycol-1000-succinate and dithiothreitol caused significant inhibition on SDZ IMM125-mediated cellular Ca(2+) uptake. The glutathione synthetase inhibitor, buthionine sulfoximine, increased SDZ IMM125-mediated caspase-3 action in parallel to chromatin condensation and fragmentation as well as Ca(2+) influx. Supplementation the culture medium with the intracellular Ca(2+) chelator bis-(o-aminophenoxy)-ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid as well as omission of calcium in the medium reduced SDZ IMM125-induced apoptosis whereas the calcium supplementation of the culture medium elevated SDZ IMM125-induced apoptosis. Calcium antagonists inhibited SDZ IMM125-induced caspase-3 activation. Our data indicate that SDZ IMM125-mediated apoptosis in rat hepatocytes can be inhibited by antioxidants, and that the intracellular redox-state can act as a modulator of cytotoxicity and apoptosis. Further, the results suggest that SDZ IMM125-induced uptake of extracellular calcium is also a redox-sensitive process and that the increased intracellular calcium might directly cause apoptosis by increasing the caspase-3 activity as a central event in the cyclosporine-induced apoptotic mechanism.[1]


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