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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Validation of a flexible cystoscopy course.

OBJECTIVE: To examine the instructional effectiveness of a course for nurses wishing to learn flexible cystoscopy, using a virtual reality flexible cystoscopy simulator to measure the outcome. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Fourteen urology nurse practitioners with no previous experience of cystoscopy were taught the basic techniques of flexible cystoscopy. They then had supervised group instruction during which they practised flexible cystoscopy on an inanimate latex model, and were taught how to handle the cystoscope, followed by unsupervised practice, including use of the virtual reality (VR) simulator (URO Mentor, Simbionix, Israel). They then undertook a cystoscopy task on the simulator; within the bladder there were 10 flags (numbered 1-10) at key positions. By visualizing and photographing each of the flags the subject would have visualized the entire bladder mucosa. The number of flags seen was thus used as a measure of how much of the bladder mucosa was examined. The VR simulator also measured the total procedure time. After a day of training the subjects were reassessed and the changes in performance evaluated. Subjects were also asked their opinion of the use of VR for flexible cystoscopy. RESULTS: The median (range) time to complete the procedure before the course was 3.33 (2-5.5) min and the number of flags seen 7 (6-9). After the course, the median time decreased to 2.85 (1.5-4.42) min and the number of flags seen increased to 8 (6-9). The change in time was significant (P = 0.03) but the difference in the number of flags was not (P = 0.12). All 14 subjects enjoyed the use of VR for learning flexible cystoscopy; they all reported that they were more confident in handling a flexible cystoscope and in undertaking flexible cystoscopy. CONCLUSION: The virtual reality simulator was an effecctive tool for teaching flexible cystoscopy.[1]


  1. Validation of a flexible cystoscopy course. Shah, J., Montgomery, B., Langley, S., Darzi, A. BJU international. (2002) [Pubmed]
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