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MeSH Review


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Disease relevance of Cystoscopy


Psychiatry related information on Cystoscopy

  • CONCLUSIONS: We have developed a fast, easy to use assay for the simultaneous detection of FGFR3 mutations, which can be of assistance in clinical decision-making and as an alternative for the follow-up of patients by invasive cystoscopy for the detection of recurrences in urine [6].

High impact information on Cystoscopy

  • Forty-two of the 60 patients (70%) who had cystoscopy had macroscopic changes consistent with cyclophosphamide-induced bladder injury [7].
  • In 57 patients with superficial disease followed prospectively by cystoscopy for 12 months, 14 of 23 patients in the wild-type FGFR3 group developed recurrent bladder cancer compared with only 7 of 34 patients in the mutant group (P = 0.004) [8].
  • In selected patients, namely those with persistent negative urinary CK18 and BTF, the number of cystoscopies could be reduced [9].
  • SUMMARY: Although urine cytology and cystoscopy are still the standard of practice, many candidate biomarkers for TCC are emerging and being adopted into clinical practice [10].
  • In vivo whole body debrisoquine hydroxylase activity was measured as the debrisoquine recovery ratio (DBRR) following single dose oral administration of debrisoquine (10 mg) in 10 normal subjects and 20 patients with bladder cancer prior to diagnostic cystoscopy [11].

Chemical compound and disease context of Cystoscopy

  • Presence of mucosal change in the urinary bladder in nonhematuric patients with long-term exposure and/or accumulating high-dose cyclophosphamide. Possible significance of follow-up cystoscopy on preventing development of cyclophosphamide-induced hemorrhagic cystitis [12].

Biological context of Cystoscopy


Anatomical context of Cystoscopy

  • However, when used in adequate amounts and allowed to dwell in the urethra for 20 minutes before cystoscopy, lidocaine jelly can significantly decrease pain in men [16].
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Total and free PSA, and free-to-total PSA ratio were determined in 82 men with lower urinary tract symptoms before and 30 minutes after 3 different prostatic manipulations: 1) digital rectal examination (36 cases), 2) flexible cystoscopy (26) and 3) transrectal ultrasound guided prostatic biopsy (20) [17].
  • The lymphocytes infiltrating the bladder mucosa of 28 patients treated with bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) for superficial bladder carcinoma were characterized using an immunohistochemical technique on frozen sections of biopsy specimens obtained during cystoscopy [18].
  • METHODS: During routine follow-up for transitional cell bladder cancer, 75 patients underwent cystoscopy, bladder washing cytology, and the Bard BTA test, a latex agglutination test that qualitatively detects basement membrane complexes in voided urine [19].
  • Adriamycin causes the death of malignant cells, general improvement in the appearance of the bladder mucosa at cystoscopy and histologic evidence of endothelial damage to the bladder mucosa [20].

Associations of Cystoscopy with chemical compounds

  • To evaluate the influence of the volume of 2% lidocaine jelly as an anesthetic during cystoscopy 241 men and women received either 11 or 20 ml. jelly intraurethrally in a randomized, double-blind fashion [21].
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: A 3% 5-aminolevulinic acid solution was instilled intravesically before cystoscopy in 104 patients [22].
  • Patients received 6 weekly intravesical bacillus Calmette-Guerin instillations, and were followed for response with urinary cytology, cystoscopy and bladder biopsy [23].
  • Once or twice a week under cystoscopy 10 to 20 mg, doxorubicin hydrochloride were administered directly into the tumors [24].
  • The over-all complete response rate based on cystoscopy and either biopsy or cytology was 26 per cent for thiotepa versus 39 per cent for mitomycin C (p equals 0.08) [25].

Gene context of Cystoscopy

  • A double-monoclonal radioimmunoassay (RIA) has been used to detect urinary carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) in 204 patients attending for diagnostic cystoscopy [26].
  • METHODS: An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to compare levels of uPA and uPAR in urine that was collected before cystoscopy from 122 patients with bladder carcinoma and from 107 participants in a control group [27].
  • Resulting values were normalized against urine creatinine and expressed as pg/g. RESULTS: The median urinary bFGF level of patients with active disease, history of bladder carcinoma and negative follow-up cystoscopy, BPH, and healthy volunteers were 2,717, 1,009, 1,414 and 1,100 pg/g, respectively [28].
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 280 voided urine specimens from 265 patients were obtained immediately before cystoscopy for BTA stat, (Bard Diagnostic, Redmond, Washington) hemoglobin dipstick, (Bayer, Elkhart, Indiana) telomerase and UroVysion (Vysis, a wholly owned subsidiary of Abbott Laboratories, Abbott Park, Illinois) analysis [29].
  • RESULTS: Cystoscopy had no effect on total PSA, while digital rectal examination had a slight, statistically significantly positive effect and biopsy uniformly increased total PSA (geometric mean ratio 2.43, t = 5.08, p <0.001) [17].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Cystoscopy


  1. Urologic emergencies in the cancer patient. Russo, P. Semin. Oncol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  2. Molecular staging of prostate cancer. III. Effects of cystoscopy and needle biopsy on the enhanced reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction assay. Cama, C., Olsson, C.A., Buttyan, R., de Vries, G.M., Wise, G.J., Katz, A.E. J. Urol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  3. Role of 5-aminolevulinic acid in the diagnosis and treatment of superficial bladder cancer: improvement in diagnostic sensitivity. De Dominicis, C., Liberti, M., Perugia, G., De Nunzio, C., Sciobica, F., Zuccalà, A., Sarkozy, A., Iori, F. Urology (2001) [Pubmed]
  4. Intravesical administration of bacillus Calmette-Guérin in patients with recurrent superficial carcinoma of the urinary bladder: report of a prospective, randomized trial. Pinsky, C.M., Camacho, F.J., Kerr, D., Geller, N.L., Klein, F.A., Herr, H.A., Whitmore, W.F., Oettgen, H.F. Cancer treatment reports. (1985) [Pubmed]
  5. Urolithiasis associated with indinavir in a patient with spinal cord injury. Yudkoff, B.L., Linsenmeyer, T.A., Oakley, A., Kirshblum, S. The journal of spinal cord medicine. (2004) [Pubmed]
  6. A simple and fast method for the simultaneous detection of nine fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 mutations in bladder cancer and voided urine. van Oers, J.M., Lurkin, I., van Exsel, A.J., Nijsen, Y., van Rhijn, B.W., van der Aa, M.N., Zwarthoff, E.C. Clin. Cancer Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  7. Cyclophosphamide-induced cystitis and bladder cancer in patients with Wegener granulomatosis. Talar-Williams, C., Hijazi, Y.M., Walther, M.M., Linehan, W.M., Hallahan, C.W., Lubensky, I., Kerr, G.S., Hoffman, G.S., Fauci, A.S., Sneller, M.C. Ann. Intern. Med. (1996) [Pubmed]
  8. The fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) mutation is a strong indicator of superficial bladder cancer with low recurrence rate. van Rhijn, B.W., Lurkin, I., Radvanyi, F., Kirkels, W.J., van der Kwast, T.H., Zwarthoff, E.C. Cancer Res. (2001) [Pubmed]
  9. Evaluation of two new urinary tumor markers: bladder tumor fibronectin and cytokeratin 18 for the diagnosis of bladder cancer. Sánchez-Carbayo, M., Urrutia, M., González de Buitrago, J.M., Navajo, J.A. Clin. Cancer Res. (2000) [Pubmed]
  10. Current concepts in biomarker technology for bladder cancers. Burchardt, M., Burchardt, T., Shabsigh, A., De La Taille, A., Benson, M.C., Sawczuk, I. Clin. Chem. (2000) [Pubmed]
  11. Correlation of polymorphic expression of CYP2D6 mRNA in bladder mucosa and tumor tissue to in vivo debrisoquine hydroxylase activity. Romkes-Sparks, M., Mnuskin, A., Chern, H.D., Persad, R., Fleming, C., Sibley, G.N., Smith, P., Wilkinson, G.R., Branch, R.A. Carcinogenesis (1994) [Pubmed]
  12. Presence of mucosal change in the urinary bladder in nonhematuric patients with long-term exposure and/or accumulating high-dose cyclophosphamide. Possible significance of follow-up cystoscopy on preventing development of cyclophosphamide-induced hemorrhagic cystitis. Kimura, M., Tomita, Y., Morishita, H., Takahashi, K. Urologia internationalis. (1998) [Pubmed]
  13. Detection of colovesical fistula in the emergency department: report of a case. Raymond, P.L., Gibler, W.B. The American journal of emergency medicine. (1989) [Pubmed]
  14. Intravenous salbutamol treatment for penile erection arising during cystoscopy of cervical spinal cord injury patients. Vaidyanathan, S., Watt, J.W., Soni, B.M., Krishnan, K.R. Spinal Cord (1996) [Pubmed]
  15. Renal and bladder functions in patients after spinal cord injuries. Ehrén, I., Alm, P., Kinn, A.C. Scandinavian journal of urology and nephrology. (1994) [Pubmed]
  16. Randomized, prospective, double-blind study of the effects on pain perception of lidocaine jelly versus plain lubricant during outpatient rigid cystoscopy. Goldfischer, E.R., Cromie, W.J., Karrison, T.G., Naszkiewicz, L., Gerber, G.S. J. Urol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  17. The effect of digital rectal examination, flexible cystoscopy and prostatic biopsy on free and total prostate specific antigen, and the free-to-total prostate specific antigen ratio in clinical practice. Collins, G.N., Martin, P.J., Wynn-Davies, A., Brooman, P.J., O'Reilly, P.H. J. Urol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  18. Immunophenotypic characterization of the bladder mucosa infiltrating lymphocytes after intravesical BCG treatment for superficial bladder carcinoma. Boccafoschi, C., Montefiore, F., Pavesi, M., Pastormerlo, M., Annoscia, S., Lozzi, C., Betta, P.G. Eur. Urol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  19. Results of Bard BTA test in monitoring patients with a history of transitional cell cancer of the bladder. Ianari, A., Sternberg, C.N., Rossetti, A., Van Rijn, A., Deidda, A., Giannarelli, D., Pansadoro, V. Urology (1997) [Pubmed]
  20. Intravesical therapy with adriamycin in urothelial dysplasia and early carcinoma in situ. Glashan, R.W., Riley, A. Canadian journal of surgery. Journal canadien de chirurgie. (1982) [Pubmed]
  21. A controlled study of low and high volume anesthetic jelly as a lubricant and pain reliever during cystoscopy. Brekkan, E., Ehrnebo, M., Malmström, P.U., Norlén, B.J., Wirbrant, A. J. Urol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  22. Detection of early bladder cancer by 5-aminolevulinic acid induced porphyrin fluorescence. Kriegmair, M., Baumgartner, R., Knüchel, R., Stepp, H., Hofstädter, F., Hofstetter, A. J. Urol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  23. Long-term followup of patients treated with 1 or 2, 6-week courses of intravesical bacillus Calmette-Guerin: analysis of possible predictors of response free of tumor. Coplen, D.E., Marcus, M.D., Myers, J.A., Ratliff, T.L., Catalona, W.J. J. Urol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  24. A preliminary study of chemotherapeutic treatment for bladder tumors. Nakazono, M., Iwata, S. J. Urol. (1978) [Pubmed]
  25. Intravesical thiotepa versus mitomycin C in patients with Ta, T1 and TIS transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder: a phase III prospective randomized study. Heney, N.M., Koontz, W.W., Barton, B., Soloway, M., Trump, D.L., Hazra, T., Weinstein, R.S. J. Urol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  26. Evaluation of a double-monoclonal radioimmunoassay for the measurement of carcinoembryonic antigen in the urine of patients with bladder cancer. Hetherington, J.W., Ewing, R., Cooper, E.H. Eur. Urol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  27. Urinary levels of urokinase-type plasminogen activator and its receptor in the detection of bladder carcinoma. Casella, R., Shariat, S.F., Monoski, M.A., Lerner, S.P. Cancer (2002) [Pubmed]
  28. Urinary basic fibroblast growth factor in bladder cancer patients. Histopathological correlation and clinical potential. Gravas, S., Bosinakou, I., Kehayas, P., Giannopoulos, A. Urologia internationalis. (2004) [Pubmed]
  29. A comparison of BTA stat, hemoglobin dipstick, telomerase and Vysis UroVysion assays for the detection of urothelial carcinoma in urine. Halling, K.C., King, W., Sokolova, I.A., Karnes, R.J., Meyer, R.G., Powell, E.L., Sebo, T.J., Cheville, J.C., Clayton, A.C., Krajnik, K.L., Ebert, T.A., Nelson, R.E., Burkhardt, H.M., Ramakumar, S., Stewart, C.S., Pankratz, V.S., Lieber, M.M., Blute, M.L., Zincke, H., Seelig, S.A., Jenkins, R.B., O'Kane, D.J. J. Urol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  30. Uroepithelial carcinoma in association with cyclophosphamide ingestion. Fuchs, E.F., Kay, R., Poole, R., Barry, J.M., Pearse, H.D. J. Urol. (1981) [Pubmed]
  31. The effects of intraurethral lidocaine anesthetic and patient anxiety on pain perception during cystoscopy. Stein, M., Lubetkin, D., Taub, H.C., Skinner, W.K., Haberman, J., Kreutzer, E.R. J. Urol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  32. Combination cisplatin, 5-fluorouracil and radiation therapy for locally advanced unresectable or medically unfit bladder cancer cases: a Southwest Oncology Group Study. Hussain, M.H., Glass, T.R., Forman, J., Sakr, W., Smith, D.C., Al-Sarraf, M., Jones, J., Balcerzak, S.P., Crawford, E.D., Grossman, H.B. J. Urol. (2001) [Pubmed]
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