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MeSH Review

Mucous Membrane

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Disease relevance of Mucous Membrane

  • A neutralizing antibody against IL-6R suppressed established experimental colitis in various animal models of CD mediated by type 1 T-helper cells, by inducing apoptosis of lamina propria T cells [1].
  • Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) initially enters the body through the oropharyngeal mucosa and subsequently infects B lymphocytes through their CD21 (CR2) complement receptor [2].
  • Dead intimin beta+ C. rodentium, intimin alpha-transfected C. rodentium or E. coli strain K12, and EPEC induced mucosal hyperplasia identical to that caused by C. rodentium live infection, as well as a massive T helper cell-type 1 immune response in the colonic mucosa [3].
  • There is epithelial edema and desquamation, subepithelial deposition of collagen and fibronectin, and an inflammatory cell infiltrate in the mucosa [4].
  • Landmark article Oct 31, 1936: Observations on the etiologic relationship of achylia gastrica to pernicious anemia. V. Further evidence for the essential participation of extrinsic factor in hematopoietic responses to mixtures of beef muscle and gastric juice and to hog stomach mucosa. By W.B. Castle and T.H. Ham [5].

Psychiatry related information on Mucous Membrane


High impact information on Mucous Membrane


Chemical compound and disease context of Mucous Membrane


Biological context of Mucous Membrane

  • Our study suggests that ornithine decarboxylase activity in colonic mucosa may reflect the abnormal proliferative state in familial polyposis and identify clinically normal family members who carry the genotype [21].
  • This cell lineage is very commonly associated with gastrointestinal mucosal ulceration, and we conclude that a principal in vivo role for EGF/URO is to stimulate ulcer healing throughout the gut through induction of this cell lineage in the adjacent mucosa [22].
  • Here we show that an orally administered adeno-associated viral vector leads to persistent expression of a beta-galactosidase transgene in both gut epithelial and lamina propria cells, and that this approach results in long-term phenotypic recovery in an animal model of lactose intolerance [23].
  • We conclude that (a) iron metabolism is defective in the gut mucosa as well as the liver of beta 2m-/- mice; and (b) a beta 2m-dependent gene product is involved in iron homeostasis [24].
  • In initial studies, we showed that intranasal administration of this plasmid (along with Dox) led to the appearance of TGF-beta1-producing cells (in spleen and lamina propria) and the almost concomitant appearance of IL-10-producing cells [25].

Anatomical context of Mucous Membrane

  • Brush-border membrane proteins of the small-bowel mucosa were separated on polyacrylamide gels from intestinal biopsy specimens obtained from four children with congenital lactose malabsorption and from two adults with specific hypolactasia [26].
  • Here we show that leptin messenger RNA and leptin protein are present in rat gastric epithelium, and that cells in the glands of the gastric fundic mucosa are immunoreactive for leptin [27].
  • CGRP is associated with Langerhans cells (LC) in oesophageal mucosa, particularly during inflammation, is present in epidermal nerves and is associated with Merkel cells [28].
  • We have isolated a complementary DNA, Dcytb (for duodenal cytochrome b), which encoded a putative plasma membrane di-heme protein in mouse duodenal mucosa [29].
  • The FcRn can then recycle the IgG/antigen complex back across the intestinal barrier into the lamina propria for processing by dendritic cells and presentation to CD4(+) T cells in regional organized lymphoid structures [30].

Associations of Mucous Membrane with chemical compounds


Gene context of Mucous Membrane

  • Prostaglandins (PGs), bioactive lipid molecules produced by cyclooxygenase enzymes (COX-1 and COX-2), have diverse biological activities, including growth-promoting actions on gastrointestinal mucosa [36].
  • Immunohistochemistry reveals anti-TARC reactivity of venules and infiltration of many CCR4+ lymphocytes in chronically inflamed skin, but not in the gastrointestinal lamina propria [37].
  • Signaling via LTbetaR on the lamina propria stromal cells of the gut is required for IgA production [38].
  • The number of IgA precursors from LT(-/-) mice was not reduced, and they were able to migrate into the lamina propria (LP) of wild-type mice but not of LTbetaR(-/-) mice [38].
  • Individual populations of CD4+CD8 alpha-, CD4+CD8 alpha + and CD4-CD8 alpha + T cells were then isolated from the lamina propria compartment of IL-10-/- mice and transferred into RAG-2-/- recipients [39].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Mucous Membrane


  1. Blockade of interleukin 6 trans signaling suppresses T-cell resistance against apoptosis in chronic intestinal inflammation: evidence in crohn disease and experimental colitis in vivo. Atreya, R., Mudter, J., Finotto, S., Müllberg, J., Jostock, T., Wirtz, S., Schütz, M., Bartsch, B., Holtmann, M., Becker, C., Strand, D., Czaja, J., Schlaak, J.F., Lehr, H.A., Autschbach, F., Schürmann, G., Nishimoto, N., Yoshizaki, K., Ito, H., Kishimoto, T., Galle, P.R., Rose-John, S., Neurath, M.F. Nat. Med. (2000) [Pubmed]
  2. Epstein-Barr virus infection of polarized tongue and nasopharyngeal epithelial cells. Tugizov, S.M., Berline, J.W., Palefsky, J.M. Nat. Med. (2003) [Pubmed]
  3. Role of bacterial intimin in colonic hyperplasia and inflammation. Higgins, L.M., Frankel, G., Connerton, I., Gonçalves, N.S., Dougan, G., MacDonald, T.T. Science (1999) [Pubmed]
  4. The pathobiology of bronchial asthma. Arm, J.P., Lee, T.H. Adv. Immunol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  5. Landmark article Oct 31, 1936: Observations on the etiologic relationship of achylia gastrica to pernicious anemia. V. Further evidence for the essential participation of extrinsic factor in hematopoietic responses to mixtures of beef muscle and gastric juice and to hog stomach mucosa. By W.B. Castle and T.H. Ham. Castle, W.B., Ham, T.H. JAMA (1984) [Pubmed]
  6. Physical activity, body mass index, and prostaglandin E2 levels in rectal mucosa. Martínez, M.E., Heddens, D., Earnest, D.L., Bogert, C.L., Roe, D., Einspahr, J., Marshall, J.R., Alberts, D.S. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1999) [Pubmed]
  7. Reduction in oral mucosa micronuclei frequency following alpha-tocopherol treatment of oral leukoplakia. Benner, S.E., Wargovich, M.J., Lippman, S.M., Fisher, R., Velasco, M., Winn, R.J., Hong, W.K. Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev. (1994) [Pubmed]
  8. The effects of short periods of fasting on the absorption of heavy metals. Quarterman, J., Morrison, E. Br. J. Nutr. (1981) [Pubmed]
  9. Ethanol-induced alterations of matrix network in the duodenal mucosa of chronic alcohol abusers. Casini, A., Galli, A., Calabro', A., Di Lollo, S., Orsini, B., Arganini, L., Jezequel, A.M., Surrenti, C. Virchows Arch. (1999) [Pubmed]
  10. Prostaglandin synthesis in the human gastrointestinal mucosa. Aly, A., Gréen, K., Johansson, C. Scand. J. Gastroenterol. Suppl. (1987) [Pubmed]
  11. Colonic polyposis caused by mTOR-mediated chromosomal instability in Apc+/Delta716 Cdx2+/- compound mutant mice. Aoki, K., Tamai, Y., Horiike, S., Oshima, M., Taketo, M.M. Nat. Genet. (2003) [Pubmed]
  12. Evolution of neoplastic cell lineages in Barrett oesophagus. Barrett, M.T., Sanchez, C.A., Prevo, L.J., Wong, D.J., Galipeau, P.C., Paulson, T.G., Rabinovitch, P.S., Reid, B.J. Nat. Genet. (1999) [Pubmed]
  13. alpha 4 integrins mediate lymphocyte attachment and rolling under physiologic flow. Berlin, C., Bargatze, R.F., Campbell, J.J., von Andrian, U.H., Szabo, M.C., Hasslen, S.R., Nelson, R.D., Berg, E.L., Erlandsen, S.L., Butcher, E.C. Cell (1995) [Pubmed]
  14. Methylation of the oestrogen receptor CpG island links ageing and neoplasia in human colon. Issa, J.P., Ottaviano, Y.L., Celano, P., Hamilton, S.R., Davidson, N.E., Baylin, S.B. Nat. Genet. (1994) [Pubmed]
  15. Alpha 4 beta 7 integrin mediates lymphocyte binding to the mucosal vascular addressin MAdCAM-1. Berlin, C., Berg, E.L., Briskin, M.J., Andrew, D.P., Kilshaw, P.J., Holzmann, B., Weissman, I.L., Hamann, A., Butcher, E.C. Cell (1993) [Pubmed]
  16. Importance of innate immunity and collagen binding integrin alpha1beta1 in TNBS-induced colitis. Fiorucci, S., Mencarelli, A., Palazzetti, B., Sprague, A.G., Distrutti, E., Morelli, A., Novobrantseva, T.I., Cirino, G., Koteliansky, V.E., de Fougerolles, A.R. Immunity (2002) [Pubmed]
  17. Intravaginal estrogen creams and endometrial cancer: no causal association found. Horwitz, R.I., Feinstein, A.R. JAMA (1979) [Pubmed]
  18. Thrombocytopenia found uncommonly during heparin therapy. Powers, P.J., Cuthbert, D., Hirsh, J. JAMA (1979) [Pubmed]
  19. Immunohistochemical demonstration of pyloric gland-type cells with low-pepsinogen isozyme 1 in preneoplastic and neoplastic tissues of rat stomachs treated with N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine. Tatematsu, M., Furihata, C., Katsuyama, T., Mera, Y., Inoue, T., Matsushima, T., Ito, N. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1987) [Pubmed]
  20. Effect of beta-carotene supplementation on indices of colonic cell proliferation. Frommel, T.O., Mobarhan, S., Doria, M., Halline, A.G., Luk, G.D., Bowen, P.E., Candel, A., Liao, Y. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1995) [Pubmed]
  21. Ornithine decarboxylase as a biologic marker in familial colonic polyposis. Luk, G.D., Baylin, S.B. N. Engl. J. Med. (1984) [Pubmed]
  22. Induction of a novel epidermal growth factor-secreting cell lineage by mucosal ulceration in human gastrointestinal stem cells. Wright, N.A., Pike, C., Elia, G. Nature (1990) [Pubmed]
  23. Peroral gene therapy of lactose intolerance using an adeno-associated virus vector. During, M.J., Xu, R., Young, D., Kaplitt, M.G., Sherwin, R.S., Leone, P. Nat. Med. (1998) [Pubmed]
  24. Defective iron homeostasis in beta 2-microglobulin knockout mice recapitulates hereditary hemochromatosis in man. Santos, M., Schilham, M.W., Rademakers, L.H., Marx, J.J., de Sousa, M., Clevers, H. J. Exp. Med. (1996) [Pubmed]
  25. Transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta1-producing regulatory T cells induce Smad-mediated interleukin 10 secretion that facilitates coordinated immunoregulatory activity and amelioration of TGF-beta1-mediated fibrosis. Kitani, A., Fuss, I., Nakamura, K., Kumaki, F., Usui, T., Strober, W. J. Exp. Med. (2003) [Pubmed]
  26. Protein patterns of brush-border fragments in congenital lactose malabsorption and in specific hypolactasia of the adult. Freiburghaus, A.U., Schmitz, J., Schindler, M., Rotthauwe, H.W., Kuitunen, P., Launiala, K., Hadorn, B. N. Engl. J. Med. (1976) [Pubmed]
  27. The stomach is a source of leptin. Bado, A., Levasseur, S., Attoub, S., Kermorgant, S., Laigneau, J.P., Bortoluzzi, M.N., Moizo, L., Lehy, T., Guerre-Millo, M., Le Marchand-Brustel, Y., Lewin, M.J. Nature (1998) [Pubmed]
  28. Regulation of Langerhans cell function by nerves containing calcitonin gene-related peptide. Hosoi, J., Murphy, G.F., Egan, C.L., Lerner, E.A., Grabbe, S., Asahina, A., Granstein, R.D. Nature (1993) [Pubmed]
  29. An iron-regulated ferric reductase associated with the absorption of dietary iron. McKie, A.T., Barrow, D., Latunde-Dada, G.O., Rolfs, A., Sager, G., Mudaly, E., Mudaly, M., Richardson, C., Barlow, D., Bomford, A., Peters, T.J., Raja, K.B., Shirali, S., Hediger, M.A., Farzaneh, F., Simpson, R.J. Science (2001) [Pubmed]
  30. Human neonatal Fc receptor mediates transport of IgG into luminal secretions for delivery of antigens to mucosal dendritic cells. Yoshida, M., Claypool, S.M., Wagner, J.S., Mizoguchi, E., Mizoguchi, A., Roopenian, D.C., Lencer, W.I., Blumberg, R.S. Immunity (2004) [Pubmed]
  31. Ineffectiveness of sublingual nitroglycerin in patients with dry mucous membranes. Rasler, F.E. N. Engl. J. Med. (1986) [Pubmed]
  32. Indomethacin and inhibition of protein kinase reactions. Goueli, S.A., Ahmed, K. Nature (1980) [Pubmed]
  33. Capsaicin-induced desensitization of airway mucosa to cigarette smoke, mechanical and chemical irritants. Lundberg, J.M., Saria, A. Nature (1983) [Pubmed]
  34. Cyclooxygenase-2-dependent arachidonic acid metabolites are essential modulators of the intestinal immune response to dietary antigen. Newberry, R.D., Stenson, W.F., Lorenz, R.G. Nat. Med. (1999) [Pubmed]
  35. MAdCAM-1 has homology to immunoglobulin and mucin-like adhesion receptors and to IgA1. Briskin, M.J., McEvoy, L.M., Butcher, E.C. Nature (1993) [Pubmed]
  36. Prostaglandin E2 transactivates EGF receptor: a novel mechanism for promoting colon cancer growth and gastrointestinal hypertrophy. Pai, R., Soreghan, B., Szabo, I.L., Pavelka, M., Baatar, D., Tarnawski, A.S. Nat. Med. (2002) [Pubmed]
  37. The chemokine receptor CCR4 in vascular recognition by cutaneous but not intestinal memory T cells. Campbell, J.J., Haraldsen, G., Pan, J., Rottman, J., Qin, S., Ponath, P., Andrew, D.P., Warnke, R., Ruffing, N., Kassam, N., Wu, L., Butcher, E.C. Nature (1999) [Pubmed]
  38. Signaling via LTbetaR on the lamina propria stromal cells of the gut is required for IgA production. Kang, H.S., Chin, R.K., Wang, Y., Yu, P., Wang, J., Newell, K.A., Fu, Y.X. Nat. Immunol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  39. T helper cell 1-type CD4+ T cells, but not B cells, mediate colitis in interleukin 10-deficient mice. Davidson, N.J., Leach, M.W., Fort, M.M., Thompson-Snipes, L., Kühn, R., Müller, W., Berg, D.J., Rennick, D.M. J. Exp. Med. (1996) [Pubmed]
  40. Progesterone implants enhance SIV vaginal transmission and early virus load. Marx, P.A., Spira, A.I., Gettie, A., Dailey, P.J., Veazey, R.S., Lackner, A.A., Mahoney, C.J., Miller, C.J., Claypool, L.E., Ho, D.D., Alexander, N.J. Nat. Med. (1996) [Pubmed]
  41. Folate conjugase: two separate activities in human jejunum. Reisenauer, A.M., Krumdieck, C.L., Halsted, C.H. Science (1977) [Pubmed]
  42. Cytomegalovirus induction of tumor necrosis factor-alpha by human monocytes and mucosal macrophages. Smith, P.D., Saini, S.S., Raffeld, M., Manischewitz, J.F., Wahl, S.M. J. Clin. Invest. (1992) [Pubmed]
  43. A possible role for rat intestinal surfactant-like particles in transepithelial triacylglycerol transport. Mahmood, A., Yamagishi, F., Eliakim, R., DeSchryver-Kecskemeti, K., Gramlich, T.L., Alpers, D.H. J. Clin. Invest. (1994) [Pubmed]
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