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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Toxicity of 4-nonylphenol to Tubifex tubifex and Chironomus riparius in 28-day whole-sediment tests.

Concern has been growing recently over the toxicity and the mimicking properties of 4-nonylphenol (4NP), the most persistent breakdown product of the nonionic surfactant nonylphenol ethoxylates, broadly used in industrial cleaning processes. Twenty-eight-day tests were performed to evaluate the toxicity and the effects on reproduction of 4NP spiked sediment to the benthic invertebrates Tubifex tubifex and Chironomus riparius. 4NP was directly added to the wet sediment, avoiding any solvent. The EC50 value for the emergence of chironomids was 380 microg 4NP g(-1) dry weight (dw); the EC50 values for the deposition of cocoons and the development of young worms were very similar (428 and 420 microg g(-1) dw, respectively). Regarding NP estrogenic activity and its effects on reproduction and development, no significant differences were noted in the sex ratio of the emerged chironomids when exposed to 4NP compared to the controls, but the emerged chironomids did not lay eggs at concentrations higher than the EC10 (250 microg 4NP g(-1) dw). Furthermore, at concentration of 610 microg 4NP g(-1) dw an interference in the development of the gonads of adult worms was observed, but it was impossible to determine whether this effect was due to 4NP toxicity or to its hormone mimicking properties.[1]


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