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MeSH Review

Sex Ratio

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Disease relevance of Sex Ratio

  • X-linked dominant inheritance with male lethality is probably responsible for sex-limited expression of these disorders, as affected women have frequent spontaneous abortions and the sex ratio of their live offspring is often skewed [1].
  • Ceacam9(-/-) mice on both BALB/c and 129/Sv backgrounds developed indistinguishably from heterozygous or wild-type littermates with respect to sex ratio, weight gain, and fertility [2].
  • The two groups were not significantly different in terms of the sex ratio, age, frequency of hypertension, or diabetes, basal 24-h urinary free cortisol levels and follow-up [3].
  • We have identified 56 patients with GH receptor deficiency (Laron syndrome) from two provinces in southern Ecuador, one group of 26 (Loja province) with a 4:1 female predominance and 30 patients from neighboring El Oro province with a normal sex ratio [4].
  • A comparative retrospective study of Oriental and Caucasian patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) failed to reveal significant differences between the two groups regarding historical data, such as sex ratio, mode of onset, age at onset, duration of illness, and clinical course, suggesting that MS is essentially the same disease in both groups [5].

Psychiatry related information on Sex Ratio


High impact information on Sex Ratio

  • On the basis of a skewed sex-ratio (M/F = 4/1) and a risk to relatives much higher than the incidence in the general population, HSCR has long been regarded as a sex-modified multifactorial disorder [8].
  • There were no significant differences between the two groups in sex ratio, blood glucose levels, hemoglobin A1 values, degree of metabolic decompensation, or frequency of Type I diabetes in first-degree relatives [9].
  • The double knockout also reverted the abnormal sex ratio and early-onset tumours of Trp53-/- mice [10].
  • Where the boys aren't: dioxin and the sex ratio [11].
  • Sex ratio, IRS, transferrin saturation, and LIC did not vary with liver damage [12].

Chemical compound and disease context of Sex Ratio


Biological context of Sex Ratio

  • We also report that advanced paternal age was observed among cohorts of sporadic NS cases with and without PTPN11 mutations and that a significant sex-ratio bias favoring transmission to males was present in subjects with sporadic NS caused by PTPN11 mutations, as well as in families inheriting the disorder [17].
  • Furthermore, this differential cortisol response to NT was not associated with any evident differences in age, sex ratio, plasma levels of naltrexone or its major metabolite beta-naltrexol, or with differences in measures of nonspecific stress, such as plasma free MHPG, pulse, or blood pressure, between the two groups [18].
  • The relationship between some biological parameters (mortality, longevity, fertility, fecundity and sex ratio) and segregation of second chromosomes in heterozygous and homozygous SD males has been analyzed [19].
  • The selection driven by the Sex-ratio meiotic drive element has not fixed variation across the X chromosome of D. pseudoobscura because, while significant linkage disequilibrium was observed within the sisterlessA, period, and esterase 5 genes, we did not find evidence for nonrandom association among loci [20].
  • Taking this estimate as a measure of the fertilizing population, it is possible to infer from the change in sex ratio over time following insemination, that XY-bearing sperm have an advantage of 1.5 over nullo-X, nullo-Y sperm in leaving the seminal receptacle of the female for fertilization of ova [21].

Anatomical context of Sex Ratio

  • Recent research on the role of glucose in reproductive functioning have shown that excess glucose favours the development of male blastocysts, providing a potential mechanism for sex-ratio variation in relation to maternal condition around conception [22].
  • In all other respects, such as body weights, sex ratios, mortality rates and gross developmental features (eye opening, incisor eruption and testes descent), alcohol-derived offspring were identical with controls [23].
  • In the parasitic wasp Nasonia vitripennis, certain males carry a B chromosome, called PSR (paternal sex ratio), which causes the compaction and subsequent loss of the paternal chromosomes in fertilized eggs [24].
  • XY(RIII)qdel males have a smaller interstitial Yq deletion, removing approximately two thirds of Ssty/Sly gene copies, and display an increased incidence of mild sperm head anomalies with impairment of fertility and an intriguing distortion in the sex ratio of offspring in favor of females [25].
  • Peripheral blood lymphocyte subsets were studied in 29 untreated Chinese nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients and 20 normal controls of similar age range and sex ratio with indirect immunofluorescence using monoclonal antibodies [26].

Associations of Sex Ratio with chemical compounds


Gene context of Sex Ratio


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Sex Ratio

  • The ABO blood-group distributions of 1460 patients who had died from a stroke were compared with those of a control group of 20 705 controls selected at random from the healthy population at risk (i.e., over thirty-five years of age and matched for age and sex ratio) [37].
  • Black patients had similar incidence, disease severity, and sex ratio (F:M = 2:1) with pre-, peri-, or postpubertal disease onset; infrequent spontaneous or treatment-induced remissions; and the same final disease severity after early or late thymectomy [38].
  • The sex ratio and post-implantation loss were unaffected after treatment with piperine [39].
  • OBJECTIVE: To establish the primary sex ratio, the relative abundance of X and Y chromosome-bearing sperm, in unselected sperm and in sperm selected by swim-up or Sephadex filtration (SpermPrep column; Fertility Technologies, Inc., Natick, MA) [40].
  • No significant differences were observed between the groups of TLMV positive and negative subjects in relation to sex ratio, seroprevalence of TTV DNA, prevalence of anti-hepatitis A virus antibodies, area of residence, occurrence of daily contact with animals, family income, education level, and level of alanine aminotransferase [41].


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  2. Trophoblast cell-specific carcinoembryonic antigen cell adhesion molecule 9 is not required for placental development or a positive outcome of allotypic pregnancies. Finkenzeller, D., Fischer, B., McLaughlin, J., Schrewe, H., Ledermann, B., Zimmermann, W. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  3. Pituitary magnetic resonance imaging findings do not influence surgical outcome in adrenocorticotropin-secreting microadenomas. Salenave, S., Gatta, B., Pecheur, S., San-Galli, F., Visot, A., Lasjaunias, P., Roger, P., Berge, J., Young, J., Tabarin, A., Chanson, P. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (2004) [Pubmed]
  4. Growth hormone receptor deficiency in Ecuador: clinical and biochemical phenotype in two populations. Guevara-Aguirre, J., Rosenbloom, A.L., Fielder, P.J., Diamond, F.B., Rosenfeld, R.G. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1993) [Pubmed]
  5. Multiple sclerosis among Orientals and Caucasians in Hawaii: a reappraisal. Shibasaki, H., Okihiro, M.M., Kuroiwa, Y. Neurology (1978) [Pubmed]
  6. Food preferences, testosterone concentrations and offspring sex ratios of female mice. James, W.H. Psychoneuroendocrinology (2003) [Pubmed]
  7. Causes of macrocytosis in HIV-infected patients not treated with zidovudine. Swiss HIV Cohort Study. Geené, D., Sudre, P., Anwar, D., Goehring, C., Saaïdia, A., Hirschel, B. J. Infect. (2000) [Pubmed]
  8. Germline mutations of the RET ligand GDNF are not sufficient to cause Hirschsprung disease. Salomon, R., Attié, T., Pelet, A., Bidaud, C., Eng, C., Amiel, J., Sarnacki, S., Goulet, O., Ricour, C., Nihoul-Fékété, C., Munnich, A., Lyonnet, S. Nat. Genet. (1996) [Pubmed]
  9. A comparison of childhood and adult type I diabetes mellitus. Karjalainen, J., Salmela, P., Ilonen, J., Surcel, H.M., Knip, M. N. Engl. J. Med. (1989) [Pubmed]
  10. Inactivating E2f1 reverts apoptosis resistance and cancer sensitivity in Trp53-deficient mice. Wikonkal, N.M., Remenyik, E., Knezevic, D., Zhang, W., Liu, M., Zhao, H., Berton, T.R., Johnson, D.G., Brash, D.E. Nat. Cell Biol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  11. Where the boys aren't: dioxin and the sex ratio. Clapp, R., Ozonoff, D. Lancet (2000) [Pubmed]
  12. Insulin resistance-associated hepatic iron overload. Mendler, M.H., Turlin, B., Moirand, R., Jouanolle, A.M., Sapey, T., Guyader, D., Le Gall, J.Y., Brissot, P., David, V., Deugnier, Y. Gastroenterology (1999) [Pubmed]
  13. Brain maturation following administration of phenobarbital, phenytoin, and sodium valproate to developing rats or to their dams: effects on synthesis of brain myelin and other subcellular membrane proteins. Patsalos, P.N., Wiggins, R.C. J. Neurochem. (1982) [Pubmed]
  14. Lack of adverse effects in the F1 offspring maternally exposed to genistein at human intake dose level. Kang, K.S., Che, J.H., Lee, Y.S. Food Chem. Toxicol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  15. Insulin therapy may increase blood pressure levels in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Kanoun, F., Ben Amor, Z., Zouari, B., Ben Khalifa, F. Diabetes Metab. (2001) [Pubmed]
  16. Nephrotic syndrome in Nigerian children with homozygous sickle cell disease. Okoro, B.A., Okafor, H.U. East African medical journal. (1997) [Pubmed]
  17. Paternal germline origin and sex-ratio distortion in transmission of PTPN11 mutations in Noonan syndrome. Tartaglia, M., Cordeddu, V., Chang, H., Shaw, A., Kalidas, K., Crosby, A., Patton, M.A., Sorcini, M., van der Burgt, I., Jeffery, S., Gelb, B.D. Am. J. Hum. Genet. (2004) [Pubmed]
  18. Loss of the cortisol response to naltrexone in Alzheimer's disease. Pomara, N., Stanley, M., Rhiew, H.B., Bagne, C.A., Deptula, D., Galloway, M.P., Tanimoto, K., Verebey, K., Tamminga, C.A. Biol. Psychiatry (1988) [Pubmed]
  19. Biological parameters and the segregation distortion (SD) phenomenon in Drosophila melanogaster. Trippa, G., Cicchetti, R., Loverre, A., Micheli, A. Genetics (1981) [Pubmed]
  20. Molecular population genetics of X-linked genes in Drosophila pseudoobscura. Kovacevic, M., Schaeffer, S.W. Genetics (2000) [Pubmed]
  21. The influence of chromosome content on the size and shape of sperm heads in Drosophila melanogaster and the demonstration of chromosome loss during spermiogenesis. Hardy, R.W. Genetics (1975) [Pubmed]
  22. Facultative adjustment of mammalian sex ratios in support of the Trivers-Willard hypothesis: evidence for a mechanism. Cameron, E.Z. Proc. Biol. Sci. (2004) [Pubmed]
  23. Influence of chronic alcohol administration on representative indices of puberty and sexual maturation in male rats and the development of their progeny. Cicero, T.J., Adams, M.L., O'Connor, L., Nock, B., Meyer, E.R., Wozniak, D. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. (1990) [Pubmed]
  24. Molecular characterization of repetitive DNA sequences from a B chromosome. Eickbush, D.G., Eickbush, T.H., Werren, J.H. Chromosoma (1992) [Pubmed]
  25. The effects of deletions of the mouse Y chromosome long arm on sperm function--intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI)-based analysis. Ward, M.A., Burgoyne, P.S. Biol. Reprod. (2006) [Pubmed]
  26. Peripheral blood lymphocyte subsets in nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Ng, C.S., Chick, W., Tsao, S.Y., O, S.K., Sung, J.Y., Lee, J.C., Shiu, W., Cheng, P.N., Martin, W.M. Oncology (1987) [Pubmed]
  27. Pregnancy outcome of partners of male survivors of childhood cancer: a report from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study. Green, D.M., Whitton, J.A., Stovall, M., Mertens, A.C., Donaldson, S.S., Ruymann, F.B., Pendergrass, T.W., Robison, L.L. J. Clin. Oncol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  28. Failure of a slow channel calcium antagonist, verapamil, to retard atherosclerosis in the Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic rabbit: an animal model of familial hypercholesterolemia. Tilton, G.D., Buja, L.M., Bilheimer, D.W., Apprill, P., Ashton, J., McNatt, J., Kita, T., Willerson, J.T. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. (1985) [Pubmed]
  29. Cyclosporine bone remodeling effect prevents steroid osteopenia after kidney transplantation. Westeel, F.P., Mazouz, H., Ezaitouni, F., Hottelart, C., Ivan, C., Fardellone, P., Brazier, M., El Esper, I., Petit, J., Achard, J.M., Pruna, A., Fournier, A. Kidney Int. (2000) [Pubmed]
  30. RA sex ratios, HLA-DR, and testosterone. Deighton, C.M., Watson, M., Walker, D.J. Ann. Rheum. Dis. (1993) [Pubmed]
  31. Short-term exposure of Chinook salmon (Oncoryhnchus tshawytscha) to o,p-DDE or DMSO during early life-history stages causes long-term humoral immunosuppression. Milston, R.H., Fitzpatrick, M.S., Vella, A.T., Clements, S., Gundersen, D., Feist, G., Crippen, T.L., Leong, J., Schreck, C.B. Environ. Health Perspect. (2003) [Pubmed]
  32. Association between BRCA1 mutations and ratio of female to male births in offspring of families with breast cancer, ovarian cancer, or both. de la Hoya, M., Fernández, J.M., Tosar, A., Godino, J., Sánchez de Abajo, A., Vidart, J.A., Pérez-Segura, P., Díaz-Rubio, E., Caldés, T. JAMA (2003) [Pubmed]
  33. Shared-epitope HLA-DRB1 alleles and sex ratio in Italian patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Bongi, S.M., Porfirio, B., Rombolà, G., Palasciano, A., Beneforti, E., Bianucci, G. Joint, bone, spine : revue du rhumatisme. (2004) [Pubmed]
  34. Carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 10 expressed specifically early in pregnancy in the decidua is dispensable for normal murine development. Finkenzeller, D., Fischer, B., Lutz, S., Schrewe, H., Shimizu, T., Zimmermann, W. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  35. Diabetic embryopathy in C57BL/6J mice. Altered fetal sex ratio and impact of the splotch allele. Machado, A.F., Zimmerman, E.F., Hovland, D.N., Weiss, R., Collins, M.D. Diabetes (2001) [Pubmed]
  36. BRCA1 and sex ratio. Struewing, J.P., Hartge, P., Wacholder, S., Tucker, M.A., Greene, M.H. Eur. J. Hum. Genet. (2004) [Pubmed]
  37. Cerebral thrombosis, cerebral haemorrhage, and ABO blood-groups. Ionescu, D.A., Marcu, I., Bicescu, E. Lancet (1976) [Pubmed]
  38. Race, sex, and puberty influence onset, severity, and outcome in juvenile myasthenia gravis. Andrews, P.I., Massey, J.M., Howard, J.F., Sanders, D.B. Neurology (1994) [Pubmed]
  39. Reproductive toxicity of piperine in Swiss albino mice. Daware, M.B., Mujumdar, A.M., Ghaskadbi, S. Planta Med. (2000) [Pubmed]
  40. The sex ratio of normal and manipulated human sperm quantitated by the polymerase chain reaction. Lobel, S.M., Pomponio, R.J., Mutter, G.L. Fertil. Steril. (1993) [Pubmed]
  41. High detection rates of TTV-like mini virus sequences in sera from Brazilian blood donors. Niel, C., Lampe, E. J. Med. Virol. (2001) [Pubmed]
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