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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
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Disease relevance of Gonads


Psychiatry related information on Gonads


High impact information on Gonads

  • To analyze Sox9 function during sex determination, we ectopically expressed this gene in XX gonads [7].
  • During embryogenesis, wild-type XX fetal gonads downregulate Sox9 expression, whereas XY and XX Ods/+ fetal gonads upregulate and maintain its expression [8].
  • Measurements of serum müllerian inhibiting substance in the evaluation of children with nonpalpable gonads [2].
  • Mutations in egl-15 alter the nature of the interaction between the gonad and the SMs, resulting in the posterior displacement of the SMs [9].
  • By analyzing a large number of tra-1 genetic mosaics we have shown that, with the expected exception of vulval induction by the hermaphrodite gonad, tra-1 functions cell-autonomously, consistent with a role as an intracellular component of a signaling pathway [10].

Chemical compound and disease context of Gonads


Biological context of Gonads

  • Although the biological functions of lactogen binding sites remain uncertain, a relationship between prolactin and lipoprotein metabolism is implied by the occurrence of prolactin receptors in steroidogenic cells of the gonads and adrenal, and by the ability of prolactin to increase esterified cholesterol in the testis [16].
  • Postembryonically gex-3 activity is required for egg laying and for proper morphogenesis of the gonad [17].
  • Analysis of expression patterns and characterization of the gonad phenotype in Pdgfr-alpha(-/-) embryos identified PDGFR-alpha as a critical mediator of signaling in the early testis at multiple steps of testis development [18].
  • SPGYLA encodes an RNA binding protein expressed only in the human male gonad [19].
  • The increase in cell proliferation began less than 24 hours after the onset of Sry expression, before the establishment of male-specific gene expression patterns, and before the appearance of any other known male-specific morphological changes in the XY gonad [20].

Anatomical context of Gonads


Associations of Gonads with chemical compounds


Gene context of Gonads

  • We propose that Ods has removed a long-range, gonad-specific regulatory element that mediates the repression of Sox9 expression in XX fetal gonads [8].
  • The LIM homeobox gene Lhx9 is essential for mouse gonad formation [22].
  • We find that gon-1 is expressed in two sites, leader cells and muscle, and that expression in each site has a unique role in forming the gonad [31].
  • A DM domain gene called Dmrt1 has been implicated in male gonad development in a variety of vertebrates, on the basis of embryonic expression and chromosomal location [32].
  • In one example, daf-18 appears to constitute a cell-autonomous germline signal that converges with a somatic gonad signal mediated by ceh-18 at a kinase inhibition [33].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Gonads


  1. The pathophysiology and genetics of congenital lipoid adrenal hyperplasia. International Congenital Lipoid Adrenal Hyperplasia Consortium. Bose, H.S., Sugawara, T., Strauss, J.F., Miller, W.L. N. Engl. J. Med. (1996) [Pubmed]
  2. Measurements of serum müllerian inhibiting substance in the evaluation of children with nonpalpable gonads. Lee, M.M., Donahoe, P.K., Silverman, B.L., Hasegawa, T., Hasegawa, Y., Gustafson, M.L., Chang, Y.C., MacLaughlin, D.T. N. Engl. J. Med. (1997) [Pubmed]
  3. Hypothesis: a Y-chromosomal gene causes gonadoblastoma in dysgenetic gonads. Page, D.C. Development (1987) [Pubmed]
  4. Molecular basis of congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase deficiency. Simard, J., Rhéaume, E., Sanchez, R., Laflamme, N., de Launoit, Y., Luu-The, V., van Seters, A.P., Gordon, R.D., Bettendorf, M., Heinrich, U. Mol. Endocrinol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  5. Transcriptional activity of testis-determining factor SRY is modulated by the Wilms' tumor 1 gene product, WT1. Matsuzawa-Watanabe, Y., Inoue, J., Semba, K. Oncogene (2003) [Pubmed]
  6. Temperature-dependent sex determination and gonadal differentiation in reptiles. Pieau, C., Dorizzi, M., Richard-Mercier, N. Cell. Mol. Life Sci. (1999) [Pubmed]
  7. Sox9 induces testis development in XX transgenic mice. Vidal, V.P., Chaboissier, M.C., de Rooij, D.G., Schedl, A. Nat. Genet. (2001) [Pubmed]
  8. A transgenic insertion upstream of sox9 is associated with dominant XX sex reversal in the mouse. Bishop, C.E., Whitworth, D.J., Qin, Y., Agoulnik, A.I., Agoulnik, I.U., Harrison, W.R., Behringer, R.R., Overbeek, P.A. Nat. Genet. (2000) [Pubmed]
  9. An FGF receptor signaling pathway is required for the normal cell migrations of the sex myoblasts in C. elegans hermaphrodites. DeVore, D.L., Horvitz, H.R., Stern, M.J. Cell (1995) [Pubmed]
  10. The tra-1 gene determines sexual phenotype cell-autonomously in C. elegans. Hunter, C.P., Wood, W.B. Cell (1990) [Pubmed]
  11. A novel A10E homozygous mutation in the HSD3B2 gene causing severe salt-wasting 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase deficiency in 46,XX and 46,XY French-Canadians: evaluation of gonadal function after puberty. Alos, N., Moisan, A.M., Ward, L., Desrochers, M., Legault, L., Leboeuf, G., Van Vliet, G., Simard, J. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (2000) [Pubmed]
  12. Gender differences in Ca(2+) entry mechanisms of vasoconstriction in Wistar-Kyoto and spontaneously hypertensive rats. Crews, J.K., Murphy, J.G., Khalil, R.A. Hypertension (1999) [Pubmed]
  13. Toxicology of haloacetonitriles. Hayes, J.R., Condie, L.W., Borzelleca, J.F. Environ. Health Perspect. (1986) [Pubmed]
  14. Effect of ribavirin on the replication of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus in fish cell cultures. Migus, D.O., Dobos, P. J. Gen. Virol. (1980) [Pubmed]
  15. Menstrual function in Turner's syndrome. Groll, M., Cooper, M. Obstetrics and gynecology. (1976) [Pubmed]
  16. Lactogenic receptor regulation in hormone-stimulated steroidogenic cells. Davies, T.F., Katikineni, M., Chan, V., Harwood, J.P., Dufau, M.L., Catt, K.J. Nature (1980) [Pubmed]
  17. The GEX-2 and GEX-3 proteins are required for tissue morphogenesis and cell migrations in C. elegans. Soto, M.C., Qadota, H., Kasuya, K., Inoue, M., Tsuboi, D., Mello, C.C., Kaibuchi, K. Genes Dev. (2002) [Pubmed]
  18. Pdgfr-alpha mediates testis cord organization and fetal Leydig cell development in the XY gonad. Brennan, J., Tilmann, C., Capel, B. Genes Dev. (2003) [Pubmed]
  19. A SPGY copy homologous to the mouse gene Dazla and the Drosophila gene boule is autosomal and expressed only in the human male gonad. Shan, Z., Hirschmann, P., Seebacher, T., Edelmann, A., Jauch, A., Morell, J., Urbitsch, P., Vogt, P.H. Hum. Mol. Genet. (1996) [Pubmed]
  20. Sry induces cell proliferation in the mouse gonad. Schmahl, J., Eicher, E.M., Washburn, L.L., Capel, B. Development (2000) [Pubmed]
  21. Primary genetic control of somatic sexual differentiation in a mammal. O, W.S., Short, R.V., Renfree, M.B., Shaw, G. Nature (1988) [Pubmed]
  22. The LIM homeobox gene Lhx9 is essential for mouse gonad formation. Birk, O.S., Casiano, D.E., Wassif, C.A., Cogliati, T., Zhao, L., Zhao, Y., Grinberg, A., Huang, S., Kreidberg, J.A., Parker, K.L., Porter, F.D., Westphal, H. Nature (2000) [Pubmed]
  23. Neurosteroids: cytochrome P-450scc in rat brain. Le Goascogne, C., Robel, P., Gouézou, M., Sananès, N., Baulieu, E.E., Waterman, M. Science (1987) [Pubmed]
  24. Follistatin: a multifunctional regulatory protein. Phillips, D.J., de Kretser, D.M. Frontiers in neuroendocrinology. (1998) [Pubmed]
  25. Fluorescence visualization of the distribution of microfilaments in gonads and early embryos of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Strome, S. J. Cell Biol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  26. Hypothalamic hamartoma: a source of luteinizing-hormone-releasing factor in precocious puberty. Judge, D.M., Kulin, H.E., Page, R., Santen, R., Trapukdi, S. N. Engl. J. Med. (1977) [Pubmed]
  27. Appearance of H-W (H-Y) antigen in the gonads of oestradiol sex-reversed male chicken embryos. Müller, U., Zenzes, M.T., Wolf, U., Engel, W., Weniger, J.P. Nature (1979) [Pubmed]
  28. Co-evolution of ligand-receptor pairs. Moyle, W.R., Campbell, R.K., Myers, R.V., Bernard, M.P., Han, Y., Wang, X. Nature (1994) [Pubmed]
  29. Hamster refractoriness: the role of insensitivity of pineal target tissues. Bittman, E.L. Science (1978) [Pubmed]
  30. Hormonal regulation of gonadotropin receptors and steroidogenesis in cultured fetal rat tests. Warren, D.W., Dufau, M.L., Catt, K.J. Science (1982) [Pubmed]
  31. Control of organ shape by a secreted metalloprotease in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Blelloch, R., Kimble, J. Nature (1999) [Pubmed]
  32. Dmrt1, a gene related to worm and fly sexual regulators, is required for mammalian testis differentiation. Raymond, C.S., Murphy, M.W., O'Sullivan, M.G., Bardwell, V.J., Zarkower, D. Genes Dev. (2000) [Pubmed]
  33. Genetic redundancy masks diverse functions of the tumor suppressor gene PTEN during C. elegans development. Suzuki, Y., Han, M. Genes Dev. (2006) [Pubmed]
  34. Purification and characterization of an FSH releasing protein from porcine ovarian follicular fluid. Vale, W., Rivier, J., Vaughan, J., McClintock, R., Corrigan, A., Woo, W., Karr, D., Spiess, J. Nature (1986) [Pubmed]
  35. Mouse GATA-4: a retinoic acid-inducible GATA-binding transcription factor expressed in endodermally derived tissues and heart. Arceci, R.J., King, A.A., Simon, M.C., Orkin, S.H., Wilson, D.B. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  36. Porcine relaxin, a 500 million-year-old hormone? the tunicate Ciona intestinalis has porcine relaxin. Georges, D., Schwabe, C. FASEB J. (1999) [Pubmed]
  37. GON-1 and fibulin have antagonistic roles in control of organ shape. Hesselson, D., Newman, C., Kim, K.W., Kimble, J. Curr. Biol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  38. Steroidogenic factor 1 messenger ribonucleic acid expression in steroidogenic and nonsteroidogenic human tissues: Northern blot and in situ hybridization studies. Ramayya, M.S., Zhou, J., Kino, T., Segars, J.H., Bondy, C.A., Chrousos, G.P. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1997) [Pubmed]
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